Erik C. Thorland

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Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is increasingly utilized for genetic testing of individuals with unexplained developmental delay/intellectual disability (DD/ID), autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or multiple congenital anomalies (MCA). Performing CMA and G-banded karyotyping on every patient substantially increases the total cost of genetic testing. The(More)
Genomic microarrays used to assess DNA copy number are now recommended as first-tier tests for the postnatal evaluation of individuals with intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders, and/or multiple congenital anomalies. Application of this technology has resulted in the discovery of widespread copy number variation in the human genome, both(More)
Chromosome 22, particularly band 22q11.2, is predisposed to rearrangements due to misalignments of low-copy repeats (LCRs). DiGeorge/velocardiofacial syndrome (DG/VCFS) is a common disorder resulting from microdeletion within the same band. Although both deletion and duplication are expected to occur in equal proportions as reciprocal events caused by(More)
Purpose: Copy number variants have emerged as a major cause of human disease such as autism and intellectual disabilities. Because copy number variants are common in normal individuals, determining the functional and clinical significance of rare copy number variants in patients remains challenging. The adoption of whole-genome chromosomal microarray(More)
Rapid detection of single-base changes is fundamental to molecular medicine. PASA (PCR Amplification of Specific Alleles) is a rapid method of genotyping single-base changes, but one reaction is required for each allele. Bidirectional PASA (Bi-PASA) was developed to distinguish between homozygotes and heterozygotes in one PCR reaction by utilizing novel(More)
The development of cervical cancer is highly associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. HPV integration into the genome of infected cervical cells is temporally associated with the acquisition of the malignant phenotype. A relationship between the sites of HPV integration in cervical cancer and the position of the common fragile sites (CFSs) has(More)
Malignant melanoma presents a substantial clinical challenge. Current diagnostic methods are limited in their ability to diagnose early disease and accurately predict individual risk of disease progression and outcome. The lack of adequate approaches to properly define disease subgroups precludes rational treatment design and selection. Better tools are(More)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental disorders for which recent evidence indicates an important etiologic role for rare copy number variants (CNVs) and suggests common genetic mechanisms. We performed cytogenomic array analysis in a discovery sample of patients with neurodevelopmental disorders referred for clinical(More)
Copy-number variants (CNVs) are substantial contributors to human disease. A central challenge in CNV-disease association studies is to characterize the pathogenicity of rare and possibly incompletely penetrant events, which requires the accurate detection of rare CNVs in large numbers of individuals. Cost and throughput issues limit our ability to perform(More)
The evidence-based review (EBR) process has been widely used to develop standards for medical decision-making and to explore complex clinical questions. This approach can be applied to genetic tests, such as chromosomal microarrays, in order to assist in the clinical interpretation of certain copy number variants (CNVs), particularly those that are rare,(More)