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We have evaluated over a period of 18 months the use of 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis as a means of identifying aerobic gram-positive rods in the clinical laboratory. Two collections of strains were studied: (i) 37 clinical strains of gram-positive rods well identified by phenotypic tests, and (ii) 136 clinical isolates difficult to identify by(More)
The Mycobacterium tuberculosis ahpC gene, encoding the mycobacterial orthologue of alkylhydroperoxide reductase, undergoes an unusual regulatory cycle. The levels of AhpC alternate between stages of expression silencing in virulent strains grown as aerated cultures, secondary to a natural loss of the regulatory oxyR function in all strains of the tubercle(More)
Intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis are able to survive in the face of antimicrobial products generated by the host cell in response to infection. The product of the alkyl hydroperoxide reductase gene (ahpC) of M. tuberculosis is thought to be involved in protecting the organism against both oxidative and nitrosative stress(More)
Genetically related Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains with alterations at codon 516 in the rpoB gene were observed amongst a substantial number of patients with drug resistant tuberculosis in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. Mutations at codon 516 are usually associated with lower level rifampicin (RIF) resistance, while susceptibility to(More)
The E alpha MHC class II gene with 1.4 kb of 5'-flanking and 0.5 kb of 3'-flanking sequences was introduced into (H-2b X s)F2 mice, which do not express their endogenous E alpha gene. The transgene was expressed in thymic tissue and in adherent spleen cells and was induced in peritoneal exudate cells by gamma-interferon. In contrast to the normal E alpha(More)
Nucleotide sequences specific for a range of Mycobacterium species were defined by computer-assisted sequence comparisons of small subunit ribosomal RNA. A polymerase chain reaction-based sequencing strategy was used to demonstrate that the 16S rRNA sequence can be used for the rapid identification of mycobacterial isolates. Identification at the species(More)
The phylogeographic population structure of Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggests local adaptation to sympatric human populations. We hypothesized that HIV infection, which induces immunodeficiency, will alter the sympatric relationship between M. tuberculosis and its human host. To test this hypothesis, we performed a nine-year nation-wide(More)
We describe 18 patients with advanced HIV infection, most of whom had a chronic illness characterised by fever, diarrhoea, and massive loss of weight. Biopsy and necropsy samples revealed abundant acid-fast microorganisms in intestines, liver, spleen, lymph nodes, and many other tissues, which did not grow on solid media, although limited growth was(More)
Age, drugs, and noise are major causes of acquired hearing loss. The involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in hair cell death has long been discussed, but there is considerably less information available as to the mechanisms underlying ROS formation. Most cellular ROS arise in mitochondria and this review will evaluate evidence for mitochondrial(More)
Aminoglycoside antibiotics target the ribosomal decoding A-site and are active against a broad spectrum of bacteria. These compounds bind to a highly conserved stem-loop-stem structure in helix 44 of bacterial 16S rRNA. One particular aminoglycoside, paromomycin, also shows potent antiprotozoal activity and is used for the treatment of parasitic infections,(More)