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The phytochrome family of red/far-red (R/FR)-responsive photoreceptors plays a key role throughout the life cycle of plants . Arabidopsis has five phytochromes, phyA-phyE, among which phyA and phyB play the most predominant functions . Light-regulated nuclear accumulation of the phytochromes is an important regulatory step of this pathway, but to this date(More)
Here we show that nFET and pFET time-dependent variability, in addition to the standard time-zero variability, can be fully characterized and projected using a series of measurements on a large test element group (TEG) fabricated in an advanced High-k/Metal Gate (HK/MG) technology, thus allowing us to fully characterize the underlying technology. BTI is(More)
High-Mobility n-MOSFET options with Ge and InGaAs channels are of intense interests. As the well-known interfacial trap (D<sub>it</sub>) problem appears now contained, new challenges are emerging from above the interface. The evidence of oxide border traps (BT) in high-k dielectrics and its effect on the on-state performance of Ge and InGaAs n-MOSFETs are(More)
Photomorphogenesis of higher plants is regulated by photoreceptors including the red/far-red light-absorbing phytochromes, blue-UV/A sensing cryptochromes and as yet uncharacterized UV/B receptors. Specific phototransduction pathways that are controlled by either individual or interacting photoreceptors mediate regulation. Phytochrome B (phyB) is the major(More)
Channel hot carrier (CHC) stress is observed to result in higher variability of degradation in deeply-scaled nFinFETs than bias temperature instability (BTI) stress. Potential sources of this increased variation are discussed and the intrinsic time-dependent variability component is extracted using a novel methodology based on matched pairs. It is concluded(More)
Recently, several experimental groups have found correlations in gate and drain current fluctuations. In this paper, by studying single trap activated leakage paths, both evidence and a refined 4-state defect model are provided, ascribing additional gate tunneling current in nm-FETs to thermally activated defect states. The model is capable of explaining(More)
Empfindlicher im Dunkelroten Licht 1 (EID1) is an F-box protein that functions as a negative regulator in phytochrome A (phyA)-specific light signalling. F-box proteins are components of SCF ubiquitin ligase complexes that target proteins for degradation in the proteasome. Here we present further characterization of EID1 at the expression level, and show(More)
Self-heating effects in scaled bulk FinFETs from 14nm to 7nm node are discussed based on 3D FEM simulations and experimental measurements. Following a typical 0.7x scaling, heat confinement is expected to increase by 20% in Si-channel FinFETs and by another 57% for strained Ge-channel. Reducing the drive current needed to reach target performance by(More)