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We introduce <i>return-oriented programming</i>, a technique by which an attacker can induce arbitrary behavior in a program whose control flow he has diverted, without injecting any code. A return-oriented program chains together short instruction sequences already present in a program&#8217;s address space, each of which ends in a &#8220;return&#8221;(More)
This paper reconsiders the threat posed by Shacham's "return-oriented programming" -- a technique by which W-xor-X-style hardware protections are evaded via carefully crafted stack frames that divert control flow into the middle of existing variable-length x86 instructions -- creating short new instructions streams that then return. We believe this attack(More)
The reaction of tripyridyltriazine with iron(II) has been studied. The acid dissociation constant and water solubility of the ligand have been determined. The formation constant of the chelate has also been evaluated. An explanation of the change in molar absorptivity of the chelate when dissolved in water or nitrobenzene is offered. The analytical(More)
An extremely sensitive and versatile instrument is described that performs square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry. The instrument incorporates a flow-through cell and is capable of changing the solution matrix between the deposition and stripping steps. The working electrode is a static mercury drop electrode constructed in the authors' laboratories. The(More)
Experimental parameters associated with the use of a square-wave potential waveform during the stripping procedure have been examined for their effect on the sensitivity of ASV. Voltamperograms for 10-ng ml solutions of lead and of cadmium were recorded under the various experimental conditions. Peak heights obtained experimentally were compared with those(More)
Researchers in analytical procedures can acquire greater control over their experimental parameters, procedures and the mathematical operations used to manipulate and evaluate their data, by incorporating microcomputer technology into their laboratory instrumentation. A hybrid microcomputer system has been assembled to aid in the development of(More)
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