Erik Bodegom

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We present data for dark current of a back-illuminated CCD over the temperature range of 222 to 291 K. Using an Arrhenius law, we found that the analysis of the data leads to the relation between the prefactor and the apparent activation energy as described by the Meyer-Neldel rule. However, a more detailed analysis shows that the activation energy for the(More)
We present an analysis of dark current from a complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) active pixels sensor with global shutter. The presence of two sources of dark current, one within the collection area of the pixel and another within the sense node, present complications to correction of the dark current. The two sources are shown to generate(More)
Thermal excitation of electrons is a major source of noise in charge-coupled-device (CCD) imagers. Those electrons are generated even in the absence of light, hence, the name dark current. Dark current is particularly important for long exposure times and elevated temperatures. The standard procedure to correct for dark current is to take several pictures(More)
We present data for the dark current of a commercially available CMOS image sensor for different gain settings and bias offsets over the temperature range of 295 to 340 K and exposure times of 0 to 500 ms. The analysis of hot pixels shows two different sources of dark current. One source results in hot pixels with high but constant count for exposure times(More)
A study of dark current in digital imagers in digital singlelens reflex (DSLR) and compact consumer-grade digital cameras is presented. Dark current is shown to vary with temperature, exposure time, and ISO setting. Further, dark current is shown to increase in successive images during a series of images. DSLR and compact consumer cameras are often designed(More)
Within a pixel in a digital imager, generally either a chargecoupled device or complementary metal oxide semiconductor device, doping of the semiconductor substrate and application of gate voltages create a region free of mobile carriers called the depletion region. This region fills with charge after incoming photons or thermal energy raise the charges(More)
We present results of a systematic study of persistent, or residual, images that occur in charged-coupled device ~CCD! detectors. A phenomenological model for these residual images, also known as ‘‘ghosting,’’ is introduced. This model relates the excess dark current in a CCD after exposure to the number of filled impurity sites which is tested for various(More)
There is a growing need in industrial and scientific research applications for very wide dynamic range, high sensitivity imaging methods. To fill this need, an advanced back-illuminated avalanche photodiode (APD) design is presented based on crystallographically etched (100) epitaxial silicon on R-plane sapphire (SOS), enabling large single photon(More)