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Kingman's coalescent process opens the door for estimation of population genetics model parameters from molecular sequences. One paramount parameter of interest is the effective population size. Temporal variation of this quantity characterizes the demographic history of a population. Because researchers are rarely able to choose a priori a deterministic(More)
Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic distinctiveness of closely related species and subspecies are most accurately inferred from data derived from multiple independent loci. Here, we apply several approaches for understanding species-level relationships using data from 18 nuclear DNA loci and 1 mitochondrial DNA locus within currently described species(More)
Phylogeneticists have developed several statistical methods to infer recombination among molecular sequences that are evolutionarily related. Of these methods, Markov change-point models currently provide the most coherent framework. Yet, the Markov assumption is faulty in that the inferred relatedness of homologous sequences across regions divided by(More)
Application of electrical field to the heart during the refractory period of the beat has been shown to increase the force of contraction both in animal models and in heart failure patients (cardiac contractility modulation, or CCM). A direct increase in intracellular calcium during CCM has been suggested to be the mechanism behind the positive inotropic(More)
Enfuvirtide (ENF) is a fusion inhibitor that prevents the entry of HIV virions into target cells. Studying the characteristics of viral evolution during treatment and after a treatment interruption can lend insight into the mechanisms of viral evolution and fitness. Although interruption of anti-HIV therapy often results in rapid emergence of an archived(More)
Calcium in the artificial seawater bathing whole Mytilus anterior byssus retractor muscles (ABRM) was measured by a specific Ca electrode under various conditions of activation, catch, and catch relaxation. Activation in response to ACh was associated with uptake of Ca by the muscles. Phasic contractions produced a small Ca uptake; catch contractions(More)
Phasic or catch contractions in Mytilus anterior byssus retractor muscle (ABRM) were activated by acetylcholine (ACh) and catch relaxation was initiated by 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT). During phasic contraction and early in catch there is a brief increase in 45Ca efflux. When catch occurs, there is a subsequent drop in 45Ca efflux which then slowly recovers(More)
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