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Kingman's coalescent process opens the door for estimation of population genetics model parameters from molecular sequences. One paramount parameter of interest is the effective population size. Temporal variation of this quantity characterizes the demographic history of a population. Because researchers are rarely able to choose a priori a deterministic(More)
Phylogenetic relationships and taxonomic distinctiveness of closely related species and subspecies are most accurately inferred from data derived from multiple independent loci. Here, we apply several approaches for understanding species-level relationships using data from 18 nuclear DNA loci and 1 mitochondrial DNA locus within currently described species(More)
Phylogeographic methods facilitate inference of the geographical history of genetic lineages. Recent examples explore human migration and the origins of viral pandemics. There is longstanding disagreement over the use and validity of certain phylogeographic inference methodologies. In this paper, we highlight three distinct frameworks for phylogeographic(More)
A major milestone in transplantation would be the use of biomarkers to monitor rejection. We examined the association between perforin and granzyme-B gene expression detected in the peripheral blood of renal allograft recipients with cellular and antibody-mediated rejection. Furthermore, we judged the appropriateness of assigning negative rejection statuses(More)
Evolutionary biologists have introduced numerous statistical approaches to explore nonvertical evolution, such as horizontal gene transfer, recombination, and genomic reassortment, through collections of Markov-dependent gene trees. These tree collections allow for inference of nonvertical evolution, but only indirectly, making findings difficult to(More)
Phylogeneticists have developed several statistical methods to infer recombination among molecular sequences that are evolutionarily related. Of these methods, Markov change-point models currently provide the most coherent framework. Yet, the Markov assumption is faulty in that the inferred relatedness of homologous sequences across regions divided by(More)
Enfuvirtide (ENF) is a fusion inhibitor that prevents the entry of HIV virions into target cells. Studying the characteristics of viral evolution during treatment and after a treatment interruption can lend insight into the mechanisms of viral evolution and fitness. Although interruption of anti-HIV therapy often results in rapid emergence of an archived(More)
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