Erik Berk

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Targeting of diagnostic and therapeutic agents to endothelial cells (ECs) provides an avenue to improve treatment of many maladies. For example, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), a constitutive endothelial cell adhesion molecule up-regulated in many diseases, is a good determinant for endothelial targeting of therapeutic enzymes and polymer(More)
Tumor infiltration with effector CD8 þ T cells (T eff) predicts longer recurrence-free survival in many types of human cancer, illustrating the broad significance of T eff for effective immunosurveillance. Colorectal tumors with reduced accumulation of T eff express low levels of T eff-attracting chemokines such as CXCL10/IP10 and CCL5/RANTES. In this(More)
CD8(+) T cells have been shown to be capable of either suppressing or promoting immune responses. To reconcile these contrasting regulatory functions, we compared the ability of human effector and memory CD8(+) T cells to regulate survival and functions of dendritic cells (DC). We report that, in sharp contrast to the effector cells (CTLs) that kill DCs in(More)
Dendritic cells (DC), master antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate interactions between the adaptive and innate immune arms, are increasingly utilized in cancer immunotherapy. Despite remarkable progress in our understanding of DC immunobiology, as well as several encouraging clinical applications - such as DC-based sipuleucel-T for metastatic(More)
A recent review of the literature on Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the MMPI has shown that all previously published studies have been limited to clinical groups whose trauma occurred in Vietnam combat. The purpose of this study was to test hypotheses that predict higher MMPI and PTSD scale scores among combat veterans who differ in degrees of(More)
A progressive loss of circulating anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor-2/neu (HER2) CD4+ T-helper type 1 (Th1) immune responses is observed in HER2pos-invasive breast cancer (IBC) patients relative to healthy controls. Pathologic complete response (pCR) following neoadjuvant trastuzumab and chemotherapy (T + C) is associated with decreased recurrence(More)
Dendritic cells (DCs) are potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs), specialized in initiating and regulating T cell responses. 1 The induction of different forms of antigen-specific immune responses in tumor-specific T cells by DCs requires peptide:MHC complexes (signal 1), co-stimulatory signals (signal 2) and the secretion of specific cytokines (signal 3).(More)
Tumors have developed elaborate mechanisms to avoid recognition and subsequent elimination by the immune system. One of such evasion mechanisms consist in the recruitment and expansion of regulatory T cells (Tregs). While there are both regulatory CD4 + and CD8 + T cells, most studies performed so far have focused on CD4 + Tregs, which can be distinguished(More)
The success of cellular immunotherapies against cancer requires the generation of activated CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells. The type of T-cell response generated (e.g., Th1 or Th2) will determine the efficacy of the therapy, and it is generally assumed that a type-1 response is needed for optimal cancer treatment. IL-17 producing T-cells (Th17/Tc17) play an(More)
The effective treatment of cancer by immunotherapy requires the induction of high numbers of tumor-specific type-1 polarized T cells. Since DCs are the key antigen-presenting cells capable of activating and polarizing T cells, the generation of type-1 polarized DCs for DC-based anti-cancer therapies is desired. We have previously shown that DCs matured with(More)