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We developed a double staining technique for simultaneous demonstration of astrocytes and microglial cells in histological brain sections and cell cultures. The procedure included a histochemical stain specific for microglial cells and an immunocytochemical stain specific for astroglial cells, with postponement of the final visualization of the staining(More)
Neural mouse xenografts undergoing rejection in the adult recipient rat brain were characterized with regard to infiltrating host leukocytes and reactions of graft and host astro- and microglial cells. Rejection occurred within 35 days with infiltration of the grafts by in particular macrophages and T-cells as well as blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage for(More)
Recently we reported protection of intracerebral mouse to rat hippocampal xenografts upon treatment with a combination of cyclosporin A, prednisolone and azathioprine. These findings are now supported in an extended analysis of graft-infiltrating cells. Host T-cell and macrophage infiltration and the immunocytochemical level of cellular expression of major(More)
The present work examined the effects induced by dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dB-cAMP) on microglial cells in primary glial cell cultures from newborn rats. Microglial cells were identified by OX42 immunohistochemistry and nucleoside diphosphatase histochemistry. Double staining for astrocytes was carried out by combination with glial(More)
The circumventricular organs (CVOs) in the brain are without a blood-brain barrier (BBB) and as such directly exposed to blood plasma constituents and blood-borne pathogens. In light of previous studies showing discrepancies regarding the immunocompetence of these organs, we initiated the present study to provide a comprehensive immunohistochemical analysis(More)
HRAS is a proto-oncogene involved in the tumorigenesis of urinary bladder cancer. In the HRAS promoter we identified two G-rich elements, hras-1 and hras-2, that fold, respectively, into an antiparallel and a parallel quadruplex (qhras-1, qhras-2). When we introduced in sequence hras-1 or hras-2 two point mutations that block quadruplex formation,(More)
A multicenter study is under way to investigate the efficacy of allografting of embryonic mesencephalic neurons in a pig model of Parkinson's disease. We have first established that a stable parkinsonian syndrome can be established by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) intoxication of adult male Göttingen minipigs. We are now using positron(More)
Two G-quadruplex forming sequences, 5'-TGGGAG and the 17-mer sequence T30177, which exhibit anti-HIV-1 activity on cell lines, were modified using either locked nucleic acids (LNA) or via insertions of (R)-1-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)glycerol (intercalating nucleic acid, INA) or (R)-1-O-[4-(1-pyrenylethynyl)phenylmethyl]glycerol (twisted intercalating nucleic(More)
Sequence-specific targeting of genomic DNA by triplex-forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) is a promising strategy to modulate in vivo gene expression. Triplex formation involving G-rich oligonucleotides as third strand is, however, strongly inhibited by potassium-induced TFO self-association into G-quartet structures. We report here that G-rich TFOs with bulge(More)
KRAS mutations are primary genetic lesions leading to pancreatic cancer. The promoter of human KRAS contains a nuclease-hypersensitive element (NHE) that can fold in G4-DNA structures binding to nuclear proteins, including MAZ (myc-associated zinc-finger). Here, we report that MAZ activates KRAS transcription. To knockdown oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic(More)