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Astrocytes can respond to a variety of stimuli by elevating their cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and can in turn release glutamate to signal adjacent neurons. The majority of this Ca2+ is derived from internal stores while a portion also comes from outside of the cell. Astrocytes use Ca2+ entry through store-operated Ca2+ channels to refill their internal(More)
Astrocytes can release a variety of transmitters, including glutamate and ATP, in response to stimuli that induce increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels. This release occurs via a regulated, exocytotic pathway. As evidence of this, astrocytes express protein components of the vesicular secretory apparatus, including synaptobrevin 2, syntaxin, and SNAP-23.(More)
Due to their electrical, chemical, mechanical and thermal properties, carbon nanotubes are one of the most promising materials for the electronics, computer and aerospace industries. Here, we discuss their properties in the context of future applications in biotechnology and biomedicine. The purification and chemical modification of carbon nanotubes with(More)
Astrocytes can release various gliotransmitters in response to stimuli that cause increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels; this secretion occurs via a regulated exocytosis pathway. Indeed, astrocytes express protein components of the vesicular secretory apparatus. However, the detailed temporal characteristics of vesicular fusions in astrocytes are not(More)
Astrocytes possess GPCRs (G-protein-coupled receptors) for neuroactive substances and can respond via these receptors to signals originating from neurons as well as astrocytes. Like many transmembrane proteins, GPCRs exist in a dynamic equilibrium between receptors expressed at the plasma membrane and those present within intracellular trafficking(More)
Nephronophthisis (NPHP) is a ciliopathy in which genetic modifiers may underlie the variable penetrance of clinical features. To identify modifiers, a screen was conducted on C. elegans nphp-4(tm925) mutants. Mutations in ten loci exacerbating nphp-4(tm925) ciliary defects were obtained. Four loci have been identified, three of which are established(More)
Disrupting the function of cilia in mouse kidneys results in rapid or slow progression of cystic disease depending on whether the animals are juveniles or adults, respectively. Renal injury can also markedly accelerate the renal cyst formation that occurs after disruption of cilia in adult mice. Rates of cell proliferation are markedly higher in juvenile(More)
Astrocytes can release the excitatory transmitter glutamate which is capable of modulating activity in nearby neurons. This astrocytic glutamate release can occur through six known mechanisms: (i) reversal of uptake by glutamate transporters (ii) anion channel opening induced by cell swelling, (iii) Ca2+-dependent exocytosis, (iv) glutamate exchange via the(More)
We report the use of chemically-functionalized water soluble single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) graft copolymers for modulation of outgrowth of neuronal processes. The graft copolymers were prepared by the functionalization of SWNTs with poly-m-aminobenzene sulphonic acid and polyethylene glycol. When added to the culturing medium, these functionalized(More)
We used conductive nanotube films as substrates with which we could systematically vary the conductance to see how this property affects neuronal growth. Here we show that nanotube substrates in a narrow range of conductivity promote the outgrowth of neurites with a decrease in the number of growth cones as well as an increase in cell body area, while at(More)