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Spontaneous fluctuations are a hallmark of recordings of neural signals, emergent over time scales spanning milliseconds and tens of minutes. However, investigations of intrinsic brain organization based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging have largely not taken into account the presence and potential of temporal variability, as most(More)
As the size of functional and structural MRI datasets expands, it becomes increasingly important to establish a baseline from which diagnostic relevance may be determined, a processing strategy that efficiently prepares data for analysis, and a statistical approach that identifies important effects in a manner that is both robust and reproducible. In this(More)
Spatial independent component analysis (ICA) applied to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data identifies functionally connected networks by estimating spatially independent patterns from their linearly mixed fMRI signals. Several multi-subject ICA approaches estimating subject-specific time courses (TCs) and spatial maps (SMs) have been(More)
To further understanding of basic and complex cognitive functions, previous connectome research has identified functional and structural connections of the human brain. Functional connectivity is often measured by using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and is generally interpreted as an indirect measure of neuronal activity.(More)
We introduce SimTB, a MATLAB toolbox designed to simulate functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets under a model of spatiotemporal separability. The toolbox meets the increasing need of the fMRI community to more comprehensively understand the effects of complex processing strategies by providing a ground truth that estimation methods may be(More)
A key challenge in functional neuroimaging is the meaningful combination of results across subjects. Even in a sample of healthy participants, brain morphology and functional organization exhibit considerable variability, such that no two individuals have the same neural activation at the same location in response to the same stimulus. This inter-subject(More)
We present field observations of carbon isotope discrimination (Delta) and internal conductance of CO(2) (g(i)) collected using tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDL). Delta ranged from 12.0 to 27.4 per thousand over diurnal periods with daily means from 16.3 +/- 0.2 per thousand during drought to 19.0 +/- 0.5 per thousand during monsoon conditions. We(More)
Graph theory-based analysis has been widely employed in brain imaging studies, and altered topological properties of brain connectivity have emerged as important features of mental diseases such as schizophrenia. However, most previous studies have focused on graph metrics of stationary brain graphs, ignoring that brain connectivity exhibits fluctuations(More)
Neuroimaging studies have shown that functional brain networks composed from select regions of interest have a modular community structure. However, the organization of functional network connectivity (FNC), comprising a purely data-driven network built from spatially independent brain components, is not yet clear. The aim of this study is to explore the(More)