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To investigate mutation-rate variation between autosomes and sex chromosomes in the avian genome, we have analyzed divergence between chicken (Gallus gallus) and turkey (Meleagris galopavo) sequences from 33 autosomal, 28 Z-linked, and 14 W-linked introns with a total ungapped alignment length of approximately 43,000 bp. There are pronounced differences in(More)
The domestication of dogs was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencing of dogs and wolves to identify 3.8 million(More)
Analysis of diverse eukaryotes has revealed that recombination events cluster in discrete genomic locations known as hotspots. In humans, a zinc-finger protein, PRDM9, is believed to initiate recombination in >40% of hotspots by binding to a specific DNA sequence motif. However, the PRDM9 coding sequence is disrupted in the dog genome assembly, raising(More)
The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse breeds using a newly developed high-density genotyping array(More)
Interspersed repeats have emerged as a valuable tool for studying neutral patterns of molecular evolution. Here we analyze variation in the rate and pattern of nucleotide substitution across all autosomes in the chicken genome by comparing the present-day CR1 repeat sequences with their ancestral copies and reconstructing nucleotide substitutions with a(More)
Germline mutation rates have been found to be higher in males than in females in many organisms, a likely consequence of cell division being more frequent in spermatogenesis than in oogenesis. If the majority of mutations are due to DNA replication error, the male-to-female mutation rate ratio (alpha(m)) is expected to be similar to the ratio of the number(More)
The causes of the late Pleistocene megafaunal extinctions are poorly understood. Different lines of evidence point to climate change, the arrival of humans, or a combination of these events as the trigger. Although many species went extinct, others, such as caribou and bison, survived to the present. The musk ox has an intermediate story: relatively(More)
As all four meiotic products give rise to sperm in males, female meiosis result in a single egg in most eukaryotes. Any genetic element with the potential to influence chromosome segregation, so that it is preferentially included in the egg, should therefore gain a transmission advantage; a process termed female meiotic drive. We are aware of two(More)
Theoretical work predicts natural selection to be more efficient in the fixation of beneficial mutations in X-linked genes than in autosomal genes. This "fast-X effect" should be evident by an increased ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions (dN/dS) for sex-linked genes; however, recent studies have produced mixed support for this expectation.(More)
The evolution of birds from theropod dinosaurs took place approximately 150 million years ago, and was associated with a number of specific adaptations that are still evident among extant birds, including feathers, song and extravagant secondary sexual characteristics. Knowledge about the molecular evolutionary background to such adaptations is lacking.(More)