Erich W Stein

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Nanoparticles have been designed and applied as contrast enhancers in various optical imaging techniques, such as optical coherence tomography, fluorescence imaging, and optical reflectance microscopy. As an emerging hybrid imaging modality, photoacoustic imaging (PAI) has also benefited from the application of these nanoparticle-based contrast agents. We(More)
Microscale implantable fluorescent sensors that can be transdermally interrogated using light are being pursued as a minimally invasive biochemical monitoring technology for in vivo applications. Previously, we reported the development of an enzymatic-based sensing platform characterized using glucose as a model biochemical analyte for minimally invasive(More)
Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) has been used to obtain high-resolution, noninvasive images of the in vivo mouse brain. In this work, we exploit the high-depth and temporal resolutions of PAM to noninvasively image the blood-oxygenation dynamics of multiple cortex vessels in the mouse brain simultaneously in response to controlled hypoxic and hyperoxic(More)
Noninvasive, high resolution imaging of mouse brain activity is poised to provide clinically translatable insights into human neurological disease progression. Toward noninvasive imaging of brain activity through the hemodynamic response, the dark-field photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) technique was enhanced to image the cortex vasculature of the mouse brain(More)
"Smart tattoo" sensors-fluorescent microspheres that can be implanted intradermally and interrogated noninvasively using light-are being developed as potential tools for in vivo biochemical monitoring. In this work, a platform for enzymatic tattoo-type sensors is described and prototype devices evaluated using glucose as a model analyte. Sensor particles(More)
Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard method of axillary staging for patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axillae. Even though SLNB using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure with associated morbidity. Axillary ultrasound has emerged(More)
The encapsulation of biological enzymes within polyelectrolyte microcapsules is an important step toward microscale devices for processing and analytical applications, one which could be applied to the realization of minimally invasive sensing technology. In this work, the encapsulation and functional characterization of a bienzymatic coupled catalytic(More)
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