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Fever has been associated with shortened duration and improved survival in infectious disease. The mechanism of this beneficial response is still poorly understood. The heat-inducible 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) has been associated with protection of leukocytes against the cytotoxicity of inflammatory mediators and with improved survival of severe(More)
Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a widely distributed neuropeptide that has various different functions in the nervous system and in non-neural tissues. Little is known about the effects of PACAP in endothelial cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of PACAP on endothelial cell survival and apoptotic(More)
There is evidence that cellular hydration state is an important factor controlling cellular protein turnover; protein synthesis and protein degradation are affected in opposite directions by cell swelling and shrinking. An increase in cellular hydration (swelling) acts as an anabolic proliferative signal, whereas cell shrinkage is catabolic and(More)
Severe protein-calorie malnutrition is a major problem in many intensive care (ICU) patients due to the increased catabolic state often associated with acute severe illness and the frequent presence of prior chronic wasting conditions. Nutritional support is thus an important part of the management of these patients. Over the years, enteral nutrition (EN)(More)
Plasma concentrations of amino acids are frequently elevated in insulin-resistant states, and a protein-enriched diet can impair glucose metabolism. This study examined effects of short-term plasma amino acid (AA) elevation on whole-body glucose disposal and cellular insulin action in skeletal muscle. Seven healthy men were studied for 5.5 h during(More)
It has been shown that the polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can sensitize various tumor cells to reactive oxygen species (ROS)-inducing anticancer agents. Recently, we demonstrated that DHA also enhances the apoptotic effect of clinically achievable concentrations (1-2 microM) of arsenic trioxide (As2O3) in several As2O3-resistant human(More)
Functional changes of various neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. In this study the role of brain monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems in hepatic encephalopathy was investigated in rats with thioacetamide-induced acute liver failure. Concentrations of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and of their(More)
To examine the molecular mechanisms by which plasma amino acid elevation impairs insulin action, we studied seven healthy men twice in random order during infusion of an amino acid mixture or saline (total plasma amino acid approximately 6 vs. approximately 2 mmol/l). Somatostatin-insulin-glucose clamps created conditions of low peripheral hyperinsulinemia(More)
Studies performed on healthy volunteers have revealed that catecholamines down-regulate the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1beta. We extended this observation and show that this effect is based on changes in the mRNA concentration of these cytokines. Catecholamines are increased in(More)
An imbalance of excitatory and inhibitory amino acid-ergic neurotransmission has been suggested to play a role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. For further evaluation of this hypothesis, several parameters of amino acid-ergic neurotransmission were studied in rats with acute liver failure induced by the administration of 300 mg per kg(More)