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Heartwater is a tick-borne disease of ruminants caused by the intracellular rickettsia Ehrlichia ruminantium. The only commercially available immunization procedure involves infecting animals with cryopreserved sheep blood containing virulent E. ruminantium organisms, followed by treatment with tetracyclines when fever develops. The virulent Welgevonden(More)
Heartwater, an economically important tickborne disease of wild and domestic ruminants, is caused by the intracellular rickettsia Ehrlichia (formerly Cowdria) ruminantium. The only commercially available immunization procedure is more than 50 years old and uses an infection and treatment regimen using a preparation of virulent organisms in cryopreserved(More)
Heartwater is a serious tick-borne disease of ruminants caused by the rickettsial organism Ehrlichia (Cowdria) ruminantium. A diagnostic test, targeting the pCS20 genomic region and using PCR amplification and probe hybridization, detects E. ruminantium infection in ticks and animals. However, only the pCS20 sequence of the Crystal Springs E. ruminantium(More)
The protozoan parasite Babesia equi, a causative agent of equine piroplasmosis, was continuously cultivated in horse erythrocytes. The parasites were isolated from a carrier horse at a time when no parasite was detected in a thin blood smear. The culture medium consisted of modified medium 199 supplemented with 40% non-heat-inactivated horse serum in a(More)
Heartwater is a tick-borne disease of ruminants which causes major economic losses for domestic livestock owners throughout sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean. It is caused by the intracellular rickettsia Ehrlichia (formerly Cowdria) ruminantium and the only commercially available vaccination procedure is over 50 years old. It involves infecting animals(More)
A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay using a TaqMan minor groove binder (MGB) probe was developed for the detection of Babesia caballi infection in equids from South Africa. Nine previously published sequences of the V4 hypervariable region of the B. caballi 18S rRNA gene were used to design primers and probes to target unique,(More)
Here we describe the in vitro isolation, propagation, and characterization of a Theileria species from roan antelope (Hippotragus equinus). Cultures were initiated using parts of a prescapular lymph node of an infected roan antelope. After 16 days of culture propagation, the first subculture was carried out; thereafter, subcultures were carried out twice a(More)
Over 40 cell lines are currently available from 13 ixodid and one argasid tick species. The successful isolation and propagation of several economically important tick-borne pathogens in tick cell lines has created a useful model to study interactions between tick cells and these viral and bacterial disease agents. Tick cell lines have already proved to be(More)
A molecular epidemiological survey of the protozoal parasites that cause equine piroplasmosis was conducted using samples collected from horses and zebra from different geographical locations in South Africa. A total of 488 samples were tested for the presence of Theileria equi and/or Babesia caballi using the reverse line blot hybridization assay. Ten(More)
A commonly available Babesia caballi culture system was utilized for anti-babesial screening of four commonly used ethnoveterinary plants, Rhoiscissus tridentata, Elephantorrhiza elephantina, Aloe marlothii and Urginea sanguinea, in vitro. Well-established B. caballi cultures were initially incubated with either imidocarb diproprionate and diminazene(More)