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Using fMRI, we investigated the functional organization of prefrontal cortex (PFC) as participants briefly thought of a single just-experienced item (i.e., refreshed an active representation). The results of six studies, and a meta-analysis including previous studies, identified regions in left dorsolateral, anterior, and ventrolateral PFC associated in(More)
Neuroimaging studies of human working memory (WM) show conflicting results regarding whether dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributes to maintaining information in consciousness or is recruited primarily when information must be manipulated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we looked at a minimal maintenance process--thinking back(More)
Executive functions include processes by which important information (e.g., words, objects, task goals, contextual information) generated via perception or thought can be foregrounded and thereby influence current and subsequent processing. One simple executive process that has the effect of foregrounding information is refreshing--thinking briefly of a(More)
Older adults are slower than young adults to think of an item they just saw, that is, to engage or execute (or both) the simple reflective operation of refreshing just-activated information. In addition, they derive less long-term memory benefit from refreshing information. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that relative to young(More)
Neuroimaging evidence is conflicting regarding whether human prefrontal cortex (PFC) shows functional organization by type of processes engaged or type of information processed. Most studies use complex working or long-term memory tasks requiring multiple processes and the combinations of processes recruited for different materials may vary. Using(More)
To investigate whether emotional arousal affects memorial feature binding, we had participants complete a short-term source-monitoring task-remembering the locations of four different pictures over a brief delay. On each trial, the four pictures were all either high arousal, medium arousal, or low arousal. Memory for picture-location conjunctions decreased(More)
Age-related source memory deficits may arise, in part, from changes in the agenda-driven processes that control what features of events are relevant during remembering. Using fMRI, we compared young and older adults on tests assessing source memory for format (picture, word) or encoding task (self-, other-referential), as well as on old-new recognition.(More)
Motivationally significant agendas guide perception, thought and behaviour, helping one to define a 'self' and to regulate interactions with the environment. To investigate neural correlates of thinking about such agendas, we asked participants to think about their hopes and aspirations (promotion focus) or their duties and obligations (prevention focus)(More)
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity during remembering specific source information (format, location judgments) versus remembering that could be based on undifferentiated information, such as familiarity (old/new recognition [ON], recency judgments). A working memory (WM) paradigm with an(More)
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a working memory procedure, we compared source memory judgments (format and location) with old-new judgments in young and older adults. Consistent with previous fMRI findings, for young adults, an area of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex showed greater activity during format than old-new judgments(More)