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Between 1982 and 1999 blood samples were collected from 500 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) captured in the Beaufort and Chukchi seas, to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella species, Toxoplasma gondii, and Trichinella species infections. The bears were classified into four age groups, cubs, yearlings, subadults and adults. Brucella and Toxoplasma(More)
The fundamental niche of a species is rarely if ever realized because the presence of other species restricts it to a narrower range of ecological conditions. The effects of this narrower range of conditions define how resources are partitioned. Resource partitioning has been inferred but not demonstrated previously for sympatric ursids. We estimated(More)
Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) morbillivirus infection was initially reported by Follmann and co-workers in 1996, based upon serologic results using canine distemper virus (CDV). The impetus for the evaluation of polar bear populations for morbillivirus infections was prompted by epidemics of canine distemper-like disease in seal populations in the north(More)
One-hundred-and-ninety-one samples of blood serum collected from 186 polar bears (Ursus maritimus) between 1987 and 1992 were analysed for morbillivirus antibodies. The samples were collected in the Bering, Chukchi and East Siberian seas. Sixty-eight samples (35.6 per cent) had morbillivirus antibody titres > 5; the percentage of positive samples ranged(More)
Tissues of subsistence-harvested Arctic mammals were analyzed for silver (Ag), cadmium (Cd), and total mercury (THg). Muscle (or total body homogenates of potential fish and invertebrate prey) was analyzed for stable carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) isotopes to establish trophic interactions within the Arctic food chain. Food web magnification(More)
Tissues of bowhead, beluga, and gray whales were analyzed for Ag, Cd, Cu, Se, Zn, THg and MeHg (belugas only). Delta15N and delta13C in muscle were used to estimate trophic position and feeding habitat, respectively. Trace element concentrations in tissues were significantly different among whale species. Hepatic Ag was higher in belugas than bowheads and(More)
Two oil field workers were attacked by a rabid arctic fox (Alopex lagopus) in the Prudhoe Bay oil field (Alaska, USA) prompting officials to reduce the local fox population. Ninety-nine foxes were killed during winter 1994. We tested foxes for prevalence of rabies and canine distemper. Exposure to rabies was detected in five of 99 foxes. Of the five, only(More)
Arctic foxes were immunized with the SAG1 oral rabies vaccine. The effectiveness was determined by the serological response and by the survival to a challenge dose of rabies virus from an Alaskan fox. Vaccine virus was isolated from saliva 1 h after the liquid vaccine was placed directly into the mouth but not subsequently (tested up to 1 week(More)
We tested the Raboral V-RG® recombinant oral rabies vaccine for its response in Arctic foxes (Vulpes lagopus), the reservoir of rabies virus in the circumpolar North. The vaccine, which is currently the only licensed oral rabies vaccine in the United States, induced a strong antibody response and protected foxes against a challenge of 500,000 mouse(More)
Many arctic mammals are adapted to live year-round in extreme environments with low winter temperatures and great seasonal variations in key variables (e.g. sunlight, food, temperature, moisture). The interaction between hosts and pathogens in high northern latitudes is not very well understood with respect to intra-annual cycles (seasons). The annual(More)