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In this paper, an analytical model of the tympanic membrane is introduced where the two-dimensional tympanic membrane is reduced to a one-dimensional string. It is intended to bridge the gap between lumped-element models and finite-element models. In contrast to known lumped-element models, the model takes the distributed effect of the sound field on the(More)
This paper investigates different approaches for supplying power to implantable hearing systems via energy harvesting. Because of the specific nature of the problem, only energy harvesting in the region of the human head is considered. Upper bounds as well as more conservative estimations for harvesting mechanical, thermal, and electromagnetic energy are(More)
People suffering from moderate to severe hearing loss can be treated with active middle ear implants. A new approach in this field is to implant an electromechanical transducer onto the round window membrane in order to improve coupling and be able to treat patients with middle-ear problems. In this paper the design study for a miniaturized displacement(More)
Bimorph structures are a standard method for transforming the high force of piezoelectric materials into a large deflection. In micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, it is preferable to use structures consisting of a passive substrate (usually silicon) and one or more piezoelectric layers on the top. Such structures are called heterogeneous(More)
Round-window stimulation is a new clinical approach for the application of active middle-ear implants. To investigate factors influencing the efficiency of round-window stimulation, experiments in 6 human temporal bones were performed with different actuator geometries and coupling conditions. The experiments show that the amplitude ratio between stapes and(More)
A concept for a partially implantable hearing device, for which the power supply and signal transmission are provided by an optical transmission path, is evaluated. The actuator is designed to fit into the round-window niche and to couple directly to the round-window membrane. Implantable hearing aids can be a suitable solution in the case of severe hearing(More)
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