Erica Spackman

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A real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RRT-PCR) assay based on the avian influenza virus matrix gene was developed for the rapid detection of type A influenza virus. Additionally, H5 and H7 hemagglutinin subtype-specific probe sets were developed based on North American avian influenza virus sequences. The RRT-PCR assay utilizes a one-step RT-PCR protocol(More)
A real-time reverse-transcription PCR (RRT-PCR) was developed to detect avian paramyxovirus 1 (APMV-1) RNA, also referred to as Newcastle disease virus (NDV), in clinical samples from birds. The assay uses a single-tube protocol with fluorogenic hydrolysis probes. Oligonucleotide primers and probes were designed to detect sequences from a conserved region(More)
Intestinal samples collected from 43 commercial broiler and 33 commercial turkey flocks from all regions of the United States during 2005 and 2006 were examined for the presence of astrovirus, rotavirus, reovirus, and coronavirus by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and for the presence of groups 1 and 2 adenovirus by PCR. Phylogenetic(More)
The biological, serological, and genomic characterization of a paramyxovirus recently isolated from rockhopper penguins (Eudyptes chrysocome) suggested that this virus represented a new avian paramyxovirus (APMV) group, APMV10. This penguin virus resembled other APMVs by electron microscopy; however, its viral hemagglutination (HA) activity was not(More)
Avian astroviruses were detected by reverse transcriptase and polymerase chain reaction in intestinal contents collected from commercial chickens and turkeys from throughout the United States from 2003 through 2005. Astroviruses were detected in birds from both healthy and poorly performing flocks with or without enteric disease. Phylogenetic analysis was(More)
A longitudinal survey to detect enteric viruses in intestinal contents collected from turkeys in eight commercial operations and one research facility was performed using molecular detection methods. Intestinal contents were collected from turkeys prior to placement, with each flock resampled at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 wk of age. The samples were screened(More)
UNLABELLED The recent outbreak of H7N9 influenza in China has resulted in many human cases with a high fatality rate. Poultry are the likely source of infection for humans on the basis of sequence analysis and virus isolations from live bird markets, but it is not clear which species of birds are most likely to be infected and shedding levels of virus(More)
Sequence data was obtained from the capsid (ORF-2) and the polymerase (ORF-lb) genes of 23 turkey astrovirus (TAstV) isolates collected from commercial turkey flocks around the United States between 2003 and 2004. A high level of genetic variation was observed among the isolates, particularly in the capsid gene, where nucleotide sequence identity among them(More)
Genetic reassortment of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAI) with currently circulating human influenza A strains is one possibility that could lead to efficient human-to-human transmissibility. Domestic pigs which are susceptible to infection with both human and avian influenza A viruses are one of the natural hosts where such reassortment(More)
High-pathogenicity (HP) avian influenza (AI) virus of the H5N1 subtype has caused an unprecedented epizootic in birds within nine Asian countries/regions since it was first reported in 1996. Vaccination has emerged as a tool for use in managing the infection in view of future eradication. This study was undertaken to determine whether two divergent H5N2(More)