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Most smoking cessation programs advise abrupt rather than gradual cessation. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial of gradual cessation (n=297) vs. abrupt cessation (n=299) vs. minimal treatment (n=150) among smokers who wanted to quit now and preferred to quit gradually. Participants were recruited via newspaper and radio advertisements. The gradual(More)
Prior research has linked heightened cortisol reactivity to stress with increased food consumption. This pilot study tested corollaries of the hypothesis that cortisol stress reactivity promotes obesity. Thirty-four lean and obese women completed an acute stress task and a non-stressful control task in counterbalanced order. Contrary to expectations, higher(More)
Most clinical trials use 6 months or 1 year follow-ups as proxies for life-time smoking cessation. Retrospective studies have estimated 2-15% of smokers relapse each year after the first year of abstinence, but these have methodological problems such as memory bias. We searched for prospective studies of adult quitters that reported the number of(More)
Drug abuse treatment programs typically recommend complete abstinence because of a fear that clients who stop use of one drug will substitute another. A within-subjects study investigated whether consumption of alcohol and other substances changes during marijuana abstinence. Twenty-eight daily marijuana users who were not trying to stop or reduce their(More)
AIMS To evaluate reciprocal enhancement (combining treatments to offset their relative weaknesses) as a strategy to improve cannabis treatment outcomes. Contingency management (CM) with reinforcement for homework completion and session attendance was used as a strategy to enhance cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) via greater exposure to skills training;(More)
PURPOSE Substantial evidence suggests that tobacco use has adverse effects on cancer treatment outcomes; however, routine assessment of tobacco use has not been fully incorporated into standard clinical oncology practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tobacco use assessment in patients enrolled onto actively accruing cancer clinical trials. (More)
BACKGROUND Several gaps in the literature on individuals with co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use exist, including the extent of psychiatric, psychosocial, and physical health problems. We examine these gaps in an epidemiological study, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), of a large, nationally representative(More)
AIMS   A growing literature has documented the substantial prevalence of and putative mechanisms underlying co-occurring (i.e. concurrent or simultaneous) cannabis and tobacco use. Greater understanding of the clinical correlates of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use may suggest how intervention strategies may be refined to improve cessation outcomes and(More)
Women who experience recurrent intimate partner violence (IPV) may use alcohol or drugs because they expect that these substances will help them cope with the negative physical and psychological sequelae of IPV. However, expectancies for alcohol and drug use have not been explored among this population of women. We used the Relaxation and Tension-Reduction(More)
OBJECTIVE Assessment of the subjective and physiological effects of smoking cigarettes with different machine-smoked nicotine yields. METHODS Eight volunteers rated the characteristics of cigarettes with varying levels of nicotine (Quest(®)). At 30 minute intervals, participants smoked one of three different Quest(®) brand cigarettes in a counterbalanced(More)