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Pest and pathogen losses jeopardise global food security and ever since the 19(th) century Irish famine, potato late blight has exemplified this threat. The causal oomycete pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, undergoes major population shifts in agricultural systems via the successive emergence and migration of asexual lineages. The phenotypic and genotypic(More)
The recently emerged plant pathogen Phytophthora ramorum is responsible for causing the sudden oak death epidemic. This review documents the emergence of P. ramorum based on evolutionary and population genetic analyses. Currently infection by P. ramorum occurs only in Europe and North America and three clonal lineages are distinguished: EU1, NA1 and NA2.(More)
The contribution of arms race dynamics to plant-pathogen coevolution has been called into question by the presence of balanced polymorphisms in resistance genes of Arabidopsis thaliana, but less is known about the pathogen side of the interaction. Here we investigate structural polymorphism in pathogenicity islands (PAIs) in Pseudomonas viridiflava, a(More)
Research has demonstrated that factors external to the food source can influence consumers’ perceptions of food. Contextual factors including cutlery or tableware (for example, size and composition), the atmosphere (for example, noise levels and odours), and packaging (for example, shape and colour) have all been shown to influence the perceptual(More)
Emerging plant pathogens have largely been a consequence of the movement of pathogens to new geographic regions. Another documented mechanism for the emergence of plant pathogens is hybridization between individuals of different species or subspecies, which may allow rapid evolution and adaptation to new hosts or environments. Hybrid plant pathogens have(More)
Recently introduced, exotic plant pathogens may exhibit low genetic diversity and be limited to clonal reproduction. However, rapidly mutating molecular markers such as microsatellites can reveal genetic variation within these populations and be used to model putative migration patterns. Phytophthora ramorum is the exotic pathogen, discovered in the late(More)
Species-level genetic diversity and recombination in bacterial pathogens of wild plant populations have been nearly unexplored. Pseudomonas viridiflava is a common natural bacterial pathogen of Arabidopsis thaliana, for which pathogen defense genes and mechanisms are becoming increasing well known. The genetic variation contained within a worldwide sample(More)
Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death and ramorum blight, is known to exist as three distinct clonal lineages which can only be distinguished by performing molecular marker-based analyses. However, in the recent literature there exists no consensus on naming of these lineages. Here we propose a system for naming clonal lineages of P.(More)
Bacterial spot disease of pepper and tomato is caused by four distinct Xanthomonas species and is a severely limiting factor on fruit yield in these crops. The genetic diversity and the type III effector repertoires of a large sampling of field strains for this disease have yet to be explored on a genomic scale, limiting our understanding of pathogen(More)
Phytophthora plant pathogens contain many hundreds of effectors potentially involved in infection of host plants. Comparative genomic analyses have shown that these effectors evolve rapidly and have been subject to recent expansions. We examined the recent sequence evolution of RXLR-class effector gene families in the sudden oak death pathogen, P. ramorum.(More)