Erica L. Buonomo

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Clostridium difficile is the most common hospital acquired pathogen in the USA, and infection is, in many cases, fatal. Toxins A and B are its major virulence factors, but expression of a third toxin, known as C. difficile transferase (CDT), is increasingly common. An adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribosyltransferase that causes actin cytoskeletal disruption,(More)
BACKGROUND Environmental enteropathy (EE) is a subclinical enteric condition found in low-income countries that is characterized by intestinal inflammation, reduced intestinal absorption, and gut barrier dysfunction. We aimed to assess if EE impairs the success of oral polio and rotavirus vaccines in infants in Bangladesh. METHODS We conducted a(More)
UNLABELLED Clostridium difficile is the most common hospital-acquired pathogen, causing antibiotic-associated diarrhea in over 250,000 patients annually in the United States. Disease is primarily mediated by toxins A and B, which induce potent proinflammatory signaling in host cells and can activate an ASC-containing inflammasome. Recent findings suggest(More)
UNLABELLED There is an emerging paradigm that the human microbiome is central to many aspects of health and may have a role in preventing enteric infection. Entamoeba histolytica is a major cause of amebic diarrhea in developing countries. It colonizes the colon lumen in close proximity to the gut microbiota. Interestingly, not all individuals are equally(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the contribution of hyperinsulinemia to atherosclerosis development. METHODS AND RESULTS Apolipoprotein E (Apoe) null mice that had knockout of a single allele of the insulin receptor (Insr) gene were compared with littermate Apoe null mice with intact insulin receptors. Plasma insulin levels in Insr haploinsufficient/Apoe null mice(More)
Peripheral self-tolerance eliminates lymphocytes specific for tissue-specific antigens not encountered in the thymus. Recently, we demonstrated that lymphatic endothelial cells in mice directly express peripheral tissue antigens, including tyrosinase, and induce deletion of specific CD8 T cells via Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1). Here, we demonstrate(More)
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of hospital-acquired infection in the United States. Host susceptibility and the severity of infection are influenced by disruption of the microbiota and the immune response. However, how the microbiota regulate immune responses to mediate CDI outcome remains unclear. Here, we have investigated(More)
Clostridium difficile is currently the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections in the United States. Here, we observed increased interleukin 23 (IL-23) protein levels in human colon biopsy specimens positive for C. difficile toxins, compared with levels in negative controls (P = .008) We also investigated the role of IL-23 during C. difficile(More)
The role of leptin in the mucosal immune response to Clostridium difficile colitis, a leading cause of nosocomial infection, was studied in humans and in a murine model. Previously, a mutation in the receptor for leptin (LEPR) was shown to be associated with susceptibility to infectious colitis and liver abscess due to Entamoeba histolytica as well as to(More)
Intestinal segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) protect from ameba infection, and protection is transferable with bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs). SFB cause an increase in serum amyloid A (SAA), suggesting that SAA might mediate SFB's effects on BMDCs. Here we further explored the role of bone marrow in SFB-mediated protection. Transient gut(More)