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In this paper we investigate whether the school desegregation produced by court-ordered desegregation plans persists when school districts are released from court oversight. Over 200 medium-sized and large districts were released from desegregation court orders from 1991 to 2009. We find that racial school segregation in these districts increased gradually(More)
Behavioral side effects related to the use of levetiracetam (LEV) in epilepsy are increasingly being recognized. Patients followed in our center have reported improvement of these side effects after starting pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) supplements. Using mailed questionnaires, retrospective chart reviews, and phone call follow-ups, we analyzed 42 pediatric(More)
for their helpful feedback on earlier drafts of this work. The paper also benefited from the exceptionally thoughtful comments of several anonymous reviewers. The opinions expressed are ours and do not represent views of the Institute or the U.S. Department of Education. We take responsibility for any errors. Abstract Ho and Reardon (2012) present methods(More)
Collecting phenotypic data necessary for genetic analyses of neuropsychiatric disorders is time consuming and costly. Development of web-based phenotype assessments would greatly improve the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of genetic research. However, evaluating the reliability of this approach compared to standard, in-depth clinical interviews is(More)
High-quality early childhood experiences shape children's readiness for school as well as their later life outcomes (Campbell et al., 2012; Schweinhart et al., 2005). At the same time, the early childhood education and care (ECEC) landscape is marked by low and inconsistent quality (Barnett et al., 2010)—a reality that may have costly private and public(More)
One of the goals of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB; 20 U.S.C. § 6301) was to close racial and socioeconomic achievement gaps. Over a decade has passed since NCLB went into effect. In this paper we investigate whether the Act has been successful at narrowing racial achievement gaps. Overall, our analyses provide no support for the hypothesis that(More)
OBJECTIVE Phenotypic heterogeneity in Tourette syndrome is partly due to complex genetic relationships among Tourette syndrome, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying symptom-based endophenotypes across diagnoses may aid gene-finding efforts. METHOD Assessments for Tourette syndrome, OCD, and(More)
BACKGROUND Trichotillomania (TTM), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and skin-picking disorder (SPD) frequently occur together and share overlapping phenomenology, pathophysiology, and possible genetic underpinnings. This study sought to identify factors that predict OCD and SPD in hair pullers. METHODS Five hundred fifty-five adult female hair pullers(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify heritable symptom-based subtypes of Tourette syndrome (TS). METHODS Forty-nine motor and phonic tics were examined in 3,494 individuals (1,191 TS probands and 2,303 first-degree relatives). Item-level exploratory factor and latent class analyses (LCA) were used to identify tic-based subtypes. Heritabilities of the subtypes were(More)
Disclaimer The views expressed in this publication do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Office of Fiscal Operations provided invaluable guidance and feedback from project inception to conclusion to assure that these materials aligned with theirs and could appropriately supplement existing resources. Perhaps most importantly, we thank the(More)
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