Eric Zorrilla

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This is a broad meta-analysis of the relations of both depression and stressors to immunological assays. The number of study samples (greater than 180) and measures (greater than 40) is much more extensive than any so far. Analyses are done by both fixed and random effects. By a fixed-effects analysis, both major depression and naturally occurring acute(More)
Rationale: Despite prolonged abstinence, prior drug dependence is accompanied by lasting changes in physiology, psychosocial functioning and vulnerability to relapse. One proposed mechanism for these alterations is dysregulation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurocircuitry. Objectives: To determine regional brain CRF content and HPA-axis activity(More)
BACKGROUND Animal models of alcohol dependence suggest that long-term alterations in brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems, key mediators of the behavioral stress response, may be involved in the development and reinstatement of dependence on drugs of abuse. The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of CRF in the regulation(More)
The development of addiction and vulnerability to relapse following withdrawal is proposed to be the result of neuroadaptive processes within the central nervous system that oppose the acute reinforcing actions of drugs of abuse. These changes lead to impairment in the mechanisms that mediate positive reinforcement and the emergence of affective changes(More)
BACKGROUND Alcohol dependence is characterized by excessive alcohol consumption, loss of control over intake, and the presence of a withdrawal syndrome, which includes both motivational and physical symptoms. Similar to human alcoholics, ethanol-dependent animals display enhanced anxiety-like behaviors and enhanced ethanol self-administration during(More)
Models of dependence-induced increases in ethanol self-administration will be critical in increasing our understanding of the processes of addiction and relapse, underlying mechanisms, and potential therapeutics. One system that has received considerable attention recently is the CRF(1) system that may mediate the link between anxiety states and relapse(More)
Urocortins, three paralogs of the stress-related peptide corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) found in bony fish, amphibians, birds, and mammals, have unique phylogenies, pharmacologies, and tissue distributions. As a result and despite a structural family resemblance, the natural functions of urocortins and CRF in mammalian homeostatic responses differ(More)
Altered dynorphin opioid peptide systems contribute to increased ethanol self-administration during withdrawal following chronic alcohol exposure. We previously identified that the κ-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) selectively reduced ethanol self-administration in dependent animals. The purpose of this study was twofold: (1)(More)
Drug addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder that is characterized by a compulsion to take drugs and loss of control in limiting intake. Medications that are on the market for the treatment of drug addiction target either the direct reinforcing effects of abuse (eg, naltrexone) or the consequent protracted abstinence syndrome (eg, acamprosate). Both(More)
Molecular studies point to a role for the type 1 corticotropin-releasing factor receptor (CRF(1)) in anxiogenic-like and activating effects of CRF and stress. However, CP-154,526, a selective CRF(1) antagonist, has yielded mixed results in such tests. Few studies have examined the behavioral effects of other CRF(1) antagonists. Therefore, we examined the(More)