Eric Vittinghoff

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CONTEXT Observational studies have found lower rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) in postmenopausal women who take estrogen than in women who do not, but this potential benefit has not been confirmed in clinical trials. OBJECTIVE To determine if estrogen plus progestin therapy alters the risk for CHD events in postmenopausal women with established(More)
The chemokine receptor 5 (CKR5) protein serves as a secondary receptor on CD4(+) T lymphocytes for certain strains of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1). The CKR5 structural gene was mapped to human chromosome 3p21, and a 32-base pair deletion allele (CKR5Delta32) was identified that is present at a frequency of approximately0.10 in the Caucasian(More)
Stromal-derived factor (SDF-1) is the principal ligand for CXCR4, a coreceptor with CD4 for T lymphocyte cell line-tropic human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1). A common polymorphism, SDF1-3'A, was identified in an evolutionarily conserved segment of the 3' untranslated region of the SDF-1 structural gene transcript. In the homozygous state,(More)
BACKGROUND Although rare, esophageal achalasia is the best described primary esophageal motility disorder. Commonly used treatments are endoscopic botulin toxin injection (EBTI), endoscopic balloon dilation (EBD), and surgical myotomy with or without a fundoplication; however, reported outcomes mostly come from cohort studies. OBJECTIVE To summarize and(More)
The critical role of chemokine receptors (CCR5 and CXCR4) in human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection and pathogenesis prompted a search for polymorphisms in other chemokine receptor genes that mediate HIV-1 disease progression. A mutation (CCR2-64I) within the first transmembrane region of the CCR2 chemokine and HIV-1 receptor gene is(More)
CONTEXT The Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS) was a randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin therapy after menopause. OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of long-term postmenopausal hormone therapy on common noncardiovascular disease outcomes. DESIGN AND SETTING Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial of 4.1 years' duration(More)
The risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from various types of homosexual contact, including oral sex, is of biologic, epidemiologic, and public health importance. The per-contact risk of acquiring HIV infection from specific acts was estimated in a prospective cohort study of 2,189 high-risk homosexual and bisexual men, conducted in San(More)
BACKGROUND At the individual level, higher HIV viral load predicts sexual transmission risk. We evaluated San Francisco's community viral load (CVL) as a population level marker of HIV transmission risk. We hypothesized that the decrease in CVL in San Francisco from 2004-2008, corresponding with increased rates of HIV testing, antiretroviral therapy (ART)(More)
Men who have sex with men (MSM) continue to account for the largest number of new HIV infections in the United States, but limited data exist on independent risk factors for infection beyond the early 1990s. The HIV Network for Prevention Trials Vaccine Preparedness Study enrolled 3257 MSM in 6 US cities from 1995 to 1997. HIV seroincidence was 1.55 per 100(More)
BACKGROUND Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is currently recommended after certain high-risk exposures, and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is undergoing evaluation in clinical trials. Media reports have suggested substantial levels of community PrEP use despite its unproven effectiveness. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1819(More)