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The integrity of the central efferent motor pathways to the diaphragm can be assessed by using transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure the latency of the corresponding motor evoked potentials with surface electrodes. Because transcranial magnetic stimulation does not activate the diaphragm alone, signal contamination is a potential problem. To evaluate(More)
Inhibitory patterns of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) were applied to pharyngeal motor cortex in order to establish its role in modulating swallowing activity and provide evidence for functionally relevant hemispheric asymmetry. Healthy volunteers underwent single pulse TMS before and for 60 min after differing intensities of 1 Hz rTMS(More)
It is unknown whether changes in corticomotor excitability follow exercise in healthy humans. We hypothesized that a fall in the diaphragm and quadriceps motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex would occur after an incremental exercise task. In 11 healthy subjects, we measured(More)
Respiratory muscles respond to a subcortical automatic command and to a neocortical voluntary command. In diseases such as stroke or motor neurone disease, an abnormal diaphragmatic response to single transcranial magnetic stimuli can identify a central source for respiratory disorders, but this is not likely to be the case in disorders affecting(More)
Poststroke dysphagia is frequent and significantly increases patient mortality. In two thirds of cases there is a spontaneous improvement in a few weeks, but in the other third, oropharyngeal dysphagia persists. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is known to excite or inhibit cortical neurons, depending on stimulation frequency. The aim of(More)
This work aimed to study mylohyoid motor-evoked potentials (MHMEPs) and examined if it is related to chronic stroke dysphagia. Conduction time (CT) and amplitudes of the right and left MHMEPs in response to focal cortical magnetic stimulations over affected and unaffected hemispheres were recorded in 16 stroke patients with aspiration (n = 9) or residue (n(More)
Noninvasive mechanical ventilation is an effective procedure to manage patients with acute or chronic respiratory failure. Most ventilators act as flow generators that assist spontaneous respiratory cycles by delivering inspiratory and expiratory pressures. This allows the patient to improve alveolar ventilation and subsequent pulmonary gas exchanges. The(More)
Phrenic nerve stimulation, electrical (ES) or from cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS), allows one to assess the diaphragm contractile properties and the conduction time of the phrenic nerve (PNCT) through recording of an electromyographic response, traditionally by using surface electrodes. Because of the coactivation of extradiaphragmatic muscles, signal(More)
Polymyositis, dermatopolymyositis, and inclusion body myositis imply chronic inflammation of skeletal muscles. Pulmonary complications include aspiration pneumonia, interstitial pneumonitis, or respiratory muscle myositis. This study aims at better describing their impact on respiratory muscle. Twenty-three consecutive patients (12 PM, 5 DM, 6 IBM) were(More)
Our aim was to determine whether ventilation and swallowing tasks can modify oropharyngeal cortical motor organisation. Mylohyoid motor-evoked potentials (MEP) induced by non-focal (NF) and focal (F) magnetic stimulations were recorded in nine healthy volunteers four times, with 1 week between each recording. Baseline values were evaluated and their(More)