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The integrity of the central efferent motor pathways to the diaphragm can be assessed by using transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure the latency of the corresponding motor evoked potentials with surface electrodes. Because transcranial magnetic stimulation does not activate the diaphragm alone, signal contamination is a potential problem. To evaluate(More)
Phrenic nerve stimulation, electrical (ES) or from cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS), allows one to assess the diaphragm contractile properties and the conduction time of the phrenic nerve (PNCT) through recording of an electromyographic response, traditionally by using surface electrodes. Because of the coactivation of extradiaphragmatic muscles, signal(More)
Phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) can assess airflow dynamics of the upper airway (UA) during wakefulness in man. Using PNS, we aimed to assess the impact of neck flexion and mouth opening in promoting UA unstability. Measurements were made during nasal breathing in seven healthy subjects (ages = 23-39 yr; one woman). Surface diaphragm electromyogram,(More)
Inhibitory patterns of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) were applied to pharyngeal motor cortex in order to establish its role in modulating swallowing activity and provide evidence for functionally relevant hemispheric asymmetry. Healthy volunteers underwent single pulse TMS before and for 60 min after differing intensities of 1 Hz rTMS(More)
It is unknown whether changes in corticomotor excitability follow exercise in healthy humans. We hypothesized that a fall in the diaphragm and quadriceps motor-evoked potential (MEP) amplitude elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex would occur after an incremental exercise task. In 11 healthy subjects, we measured(More)
Respiratory muscles respond to a subcortical automatic command and to a neocortical voluntary command. In diseases such as stroke or motor neurone disease, an abnormal diaphragmatic response to single transcranial magnetic stimuli can identify a central source for respiratory disorders, but this is not likely to be the case in disorders affecting(More)
Poststroke dysphagia is frequent and significantly increases patient mortality. In two thirds of cases there is a spontaneous improvement in a few weeks, but in the other third, oropharyngeal dysphagia persists. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is known to excite or inhibit cortical neurons, depending on stimulation frequency. The aim of(More)
This work aimed to study mylohyoid motor-evoked potentials (MHMEPs) and examined if it is related to chronic stroke dysphagia. Conduction time (CT) and amplitudes of the right and left MHMEPs in response to focal cortical magnetic stimulations over affected and unaffected hemispheres were recorded in 16 stroke patients with aspiration (n = 9) or residue (n(More)
BACKGROUND A study was undertaken to examine the expiratory flow response to a negative pressure (NEP) applied at the airway in patients with no abnormalities of the intrathoracic airway but suffering from the obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). METHODS Nineteen patients with OSAS with normal spirometric values were studied. NEP of -5 cm H(2)O and(More)
Noninvasive mechanical ventilation is an effective procedure to manage patients with acute or chronic respiratory failure. Most ventilators act as flow generators that assist spontaneous respiratory cycles by delivering inspiratory and expiratory pressures. This allows the patient to improve alveolar ventilation and subsequent pulmonary gas exchanges. The(More)