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Inhibitory patterns of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) were applied to pharyngeal motor cortex in order to establish its role in modulating swallowing activity and provide evidence for functionally relevant hemispheric asymmetry. Healthy volunteers underwent single pulse TMS before and for 60 min after differing intensities of 1 Hz rTMS(More)
Dysphagia is one of the most important complications encountered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Our aim was to determine whether oropharyngeal dysphagia impacted the quality of life (QoL) of patients with ALS. Thirty consecutive patients were recruited (31-82 years, 18 men). Swallowing function was evaluated using a standardised videofluoroscopic(More)
The integrity of the central efferent motor pathways to the diaphragm can be assessed by using transcranial magnetic stimulation to measure the latency of the corresponding motor evoked potentials with surface electrodes. Because transcranial magnetic stimulation does not activate the diaphragm alone, signal contamination is a potential problem. To evaluate(More)
Phrenic nerve stimulation, electrical (ES) or from cervical magnetic stimulation (CMS), allows one to assess the diaphragm contractile properties and the conduction time of the phrenic nerve (PNCT) through recording of an electromyographic response, traditionally by using surface electrodes. Because of the coactivation of extradiaphragmatic muscles, signal(More)
Phrenic nerve stimulation (PNS) can assess airflow dynamics of the upper airway (UA) during wakefulness in man. Using PNS, we aimed to assess the impact of neck flexion and mouth opening in promoting UA unstability. Measurements were made during nasal breathing in seven healthy subjects (ages = 23-39 yr; one woman). Surface diaphragm electromyogram,(More)
A quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire specifically designed for patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia (SWAL-QOL) has been elaborated and validated by Colleen McHorney. The aim of the present study was to validate the French translation of the SWAL-QOL in 73 patients with either post-stroke or post-surgical oropharyngeal dysphagia. The French version was(More)
Oropharyngeal dysphagia is frequent in stroke patients and increases mortality, mainly because of pulmonary complications. We hypothesized that sensitive transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied submentally during swallowing could help rehabilitate post-stroke oropharyngeal dysphagia by improving cortical sensory motor circuits. Eleven patients were(More)
The aim of this study was to determine the effects on respiratory drive of two factors, one mechanical (lung volume) and one chemical (sensitivity to hypercapnia), that are involved in determining the breath-hold duration (BHD). Functional residual capacity was measured by helium dilution with the subject seated in air, seated in water and in the prone(More)
Two main factors (chemical and non-chemical factors) are involved in the determination of breath-holding time (BHT). Earlier studies have shown that chemical factors can be modified by training. The aim of this study was to establish whether BHT can be lengthened or shortened by changes in non-chemical factors according to the degree of training of the(More)
The length of breath-hold duration in divers is dependant on a number of interacting variables which include mechanical factors (lung volumes), chemical factors (sensitivity to hypoxia and hypercapnia), non-chemical factors (involuntary muscular contractions), psychological factors (motivation, stress, competition) and various extrinsic factors (training,(More)