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Accumulating evidence suggests that the adult murine hypothalamus, a control site of several fundamental homeostatic processes, has neurogenic capacity. Correspondingly, the adult hypothalamus exhibits considerable cell proliferation that is ongoing even in the absence of external stimuli, and some of the newborn cells have been shown to mature into cells(More)
In mammals, the osmolality of the extracellular fluid is maintained near a predetermined set-point through a negative feedback regulation of thirst, diuresis, salt appetite and natriuresis. This homeostatic control is believed to be mediated by osmosensory neurones which synaptically regulate the electrical activity of command neurones that mediate each of(More)
Osmoregulated vasopressin release is facilitated during the late sleep period (LSP) to prevent dehydration and enuresis. Previous work has shown that clock neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) have low firing rates during the LSP, but it is not known how this reduced activity enhances vasopressin release. We found that synaptic excitation of rat(More)
The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (VP) promotes water reabsorption from the kidney and levels of circulating VP are normally related linearly to plasma osmolality, aiming to maintain the latter close to a predetermined set point. Interestingly, VP levels rise also in the absence of an increase in osmolality during late sleep in various mammals, including(More)
The organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT), the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and the supraoptic nucleus (SON) are three hypothalamic structures involved in the osmotic and circadian control of neurohypophysial secretion. Recent experiments have suggested that interactions between osmotic and circadian factors may be important for homeostasis. The(More)
UNLABELLED Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by the systemic inflammatory response to a bacterial infection. Although much is known about the cellular and molecular changes that characterize the peripheral inflammatory response to sepsis, almost nothing is known of the neuronal changes that cause associated perturbations in the central control(More)
Osmotic control of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) release from magnocellular neurosecretory cells (MNCs) of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) nuclei is essential for body fluid homeostasis. The electrical activity of MNCs, which is regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic osmosensitive factors, is a primary determinant of blood AVP(More)
Homeostatic control of extracellular fluid osmolality in rats requires a parallel excitation of vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) neurosecretory neurons by osmoreceptor afferents to regulate the amount of water and sodium in the urine under normal conditions. However, during decreased blood volume (hypovolemia), natriuresis is suppressed, whereas(More)
Neural activity plays an important role in organizing and optimizing neural circuits during development and in the mature nervous system. However, the cellular events that underlie this process still remain to be fully understood. In this study, we investigated the role of neural activity in regulating the structural plasticity of presynaptic terminals in(More)