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The duplication of entire genomes has long been recognized as having great potential for evolutionary novelties, but the mechanisms underlying their resolution through gene loss are poorly understood. Here we show that in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia, a ciliate, most of the nearly 40,000 genes arose through at least three successive(More)
Chromosome walking has been used to study the organization of the class I genes in the D and Qa regions of the MHC of the BALB/c mouse and in the D region of the AKR mouse. Five and eight class I genes are found in the D and Qa regions of the BALB/c mouse, respectively, while the AKR mouse contains only a single class I D region gene that has been(More)
Resistance of tumors to treatment with cytotoxic drugs, irradiation or immunotherapy may be due to disrupted apoptosis programs. Here, we report in a variety of different tumor cells including Ewing tumor, neuroblastoma, malignant brain tumors and melanoma that caspase-8 expression acts as a key determinant of sensitivity for apoptosis induced by(More)
Primary or acquired resistance to current treatment protocols remains a major concern in clinical oncology and may be caused by defects in apoptosis programs. Since recent data suggest that TRAIL can bypass apoptosis resistance caused by Bcl-2, we further investigated the role of Bcl-2 in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Here we report that overexpression of Bcl-2(More)
Apoptosis in response to cellular stress such as treatment with cytotoxic drugs is mediated by effector caspases (caspase-3) which can be activated by different initiator pathways. Here, we report on a cell type specific triggering of death receptor and/or mitochondrial pathways upon drug treatment. In type I cells (BJAB), both the receptor and the(More)
The germline genome of ciliates is extensively rearranged during the development of a new somatic macronucleus from the germline micronucleus, after sexual events. In Paramecium tetraurelia, single-copy internal eliminated sequences (IESs) are precisely excised from coding sequences and intergenic regions. For a subset of IESs, introduction of the IES(More)
It has long been known that messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of ciliates and in particular of Paramecium are not translated well in heterologous in vitro translation systems. Recently, we have demonstrated for Paramecium primaurelia that this phenomenon results from the presence of well-defined blocking sites in the coding sequences of almost all mRNAs, and that(More)
We conducted genomewide linkage analyses on 1,152 individuals from 250 families segregating for bipolar disorder and related affective illnesses. These pedigrees were ascertained at 10 sites in the United States, through a proband with bipolar I affective disorder and a sibling with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type. Uniform methods of(More)
The germ line genome of ciliates is extensively rearranged during development of the somatic macronucleus. Numerous sequences are eliminated, while others are amplified to a high ploidy level. In the Paramecium aurelia group of species, transformation of the maternal macronucleus with transgenes at high copy numbers can induce the deletion of homologous(More)