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Preventing patient harm is one of the main tasks for the field of anesthesiology from early on. With the introduction of the national German incident reporting system PaSOS, which is hosted by the German anesthesia society, anesthesiology is again leading the field of patient safety. Important elements, success factors and background information for the(More)
This article addresses the necessary steps in the design of simulation-based instructional systems. A model for designing instructional systems is presented which stipulates that the outcome metrics be defined before the simulation system is designed. This ensures integration of educational objectives and measures of competency into the design and(More)
A human monoclonal anti-HBsAg antibody (IgG1, lambda) was used as a reference for an ELISA determination of the serum levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies in human volunteers after vaccination with H-B vax. The IgG subclass distribution of specific antibodies showed a marked dominance of IgG1 antibodies. In addition, small amounts of specific IgG4 antibodies(More)
Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. We have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. We fused two monoclonal cell lines: an(More)
Transformation of human B lymphocytes, obtained from hyperimmune donors with Epstein-Barr virus, yields polyclonal cell populations in which a minority of cells produce IgG antibodies of predetermined specificity, whereas the majority of cells produce 'non-specific' immunoglobulin (mainly of the IgM class). Such lymphoblastoid cell lines can be easily(More)