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1. Mdx mice were used as a model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy; both lack dystrophin. It was hypothesized that the mdx condition would have a marked effect on the ability of diaphragm muscle from mdx mice to do active net work and generate power. This hypothesis was tested using the work-loop technique. 2. Specific twitch force, specific tetanic force and(More)
Vaccines prevent infectious disease largely by inducing protective neutralizing antibodies against vulnerable epitopes. Several major pathogens have resisted traditional vaccine development, although vulnerable epitopes targeted by neutralizing antibodies have been identified for several such cases. Hence, new vaccine design methods to induce(More)
Fish were sampled individually, at rest, following air exposures of up to 8 min, during recovery from a 5 min air exposure or after a 5 minute chase. The spleen was photographedin vivo at rest and following 5 min air exposure in one fish. The effect of individual versus serial sampling from the same tank and of MS222 anaesthesia was also examined. Spleen(More)
We made a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of morphine sulfate (40 mg/kg) into winter flounder and seawater acclimated rainbow trout at 10 degrees C and then followed its disposition by measuring the change in plasma morphine concentration for 100 h using a morphine specific ELISA. Disposition also was followed for 6h after a single IV injection of(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the cardiorespiratory effects of morphine sulfate and evaluate whether morphine blocks cardiac responses to a noxious stimulus in winter flounder. ANIMALS 42 winter flounder (Pseudopleuronectes americanus) that were acclimated at 10 degrees C. PROCEDURES Each fish was fitted with a Doppler flow probe around the ventral aorta;(More)
Giant bluefin tuna warm their viscera during and after a meal. The cecum of a 500-kg bluefin weighs about 9 kg and contains about 20,000 pyloric ceca, each about 10 cm long and 1.5 mm diam. Trypsin was assayed with alpha-benzoyl-DL-arginine-p-nitroanilide HCl and chymotrypsin with glutaryl-L-phenylalanine-p-nitroaniline. The effects of pH on specific(More)