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Tonic motor control involves oscillatory synchronization of activity at low frequency (5-30 Hz) throughout the sensorimotor system, including cerebellar areas. We investigated the mechanisms underpinning cerebellar oscillations. We found that Golgi interneurons, which gate information transfer in the cerebellar cortex input layer, are extensively coupled(More)
Human and monkey brain sections were examined by immunohistochemical light and electron microscopy to determine the distribution of GLUT1, a glucose transporter isoform associated with erythrocytes and endothelial cells of the human blood-brain barrier. Protein immunoblotting of fractionated human brain membranes was performed to determine the distribution(More)
Central pattern generators are networks of neurons capable of generating an output pattern of spike activity in a relatively stereotyped, rhythmic pattern that has been found to underlie vital functions like respiration and locomotion. The central pattern generator for locomotion in vertebrates seems to share some basic building blocks. Activation and(More)
The cerebellar cortex coordinates movements and maintains balance by modifying motor commands as a function of sensory-motor context, which is encoded by mossy fiber (MF) activity. MFs exhibit a wide range of activity, from brief precisely timed high-frequency bursts, which encode discrete variables such as whisker stimulation, to low-frequency sustained(More)
there are known racial differences in the frequencies of the PM phenotype: about 3% of whites and in 13–23% of orientals. 3 Poor metabolism results from a defect in the gene associated with the cytochrome P450 isoenzyme, CYP2C19. Two genetic defects, m1 and m2, have been identified: the former accounts for 75–83% of the defective alleles in both white and(More)
Neurotransmitters are thought to be released as quanta, where synaptic vesicles deliver packets of neurotransmitter to the synaptic cleft by fusion with the plasma membrane. However, synaptic vesicles may undergo incomplete fusion. We provide evidence that G protein-coupled receptors inhibit release by causing such incomplete fusion. 5-hydroxytryptamine(More)
When synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane, they may completely collapse or fuse transiently. Transiently fusing vesicles remain structurally intact and therefore have been proposed to represent a form of rapid vesicle recycling. However, the impact of a transient synaptic vesicle fusion event on neurotransmitter release, and therefore on synaptic(More)
Locomotor pattern generation is maintained by integration of the intrinsic properties of spinal central pattern generator (CPG) neurons in conjunction with synaptic activity of the neural network. In the lamprey, the spinal locomotor CPG is modulated by 5-HT. On a cellular level, 5-HT presynaptically inhibits synaptic transmission and postsynaptically(More)
Human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) affects up to 10% of HIV-positive black adults and children and is the leading cause of renal disease in infected individuals. The disease is characterized by proliferation of renal epithelial cells, both glomerular and tubular. Diseased kidneys are enlarged, and glomerular visceral epithelial(More)
The attenuation of neuronal voltage responses to high-frequency current inputs by the membrane capacitance is believed to limit single-cell bandwidth. However, neuronal populations subject to stochastic fluctuations can follow inputs beyond this limit. We investigated this apparent paradox theoretically and experimentally using Purkinje cells in the(More)