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Psychosocial stress is associated with altered immune function and development of psychological disorders including anxiety and depression. Here we show that repeated social defeat in mice increased c-Fos staining in brain regions associated with fear and threat appraisal and promoted anxiety-like behavior in a β-adrenergic receptor-dependent manner.(More)
Social stress is associated with altered immunity and higher incidence of anxiety-related disorders. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine stressor that primes peripheral myeloid cells, activates microglia, and induces anxiety-like behavior. Here we show that RSD-induced anxiety-like behavior corresponded with an exposure-dependent increase in(More)
Repeated social defeat (RSD) activates neuroendocrine pathways that have a significant influence on immunity and behavior. Previous studies from our lab indicate that RSD enhances the inflammatory capacity of CD11b⁺ cells in the brain and promotes anxiety-like behavior in an interleukin (IL)-1 and β-adrenergic receptor-dependent manner. The purpose of this(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the sensitivity of T2*-weighted gradient-echo (T2*GRE) and inversion recovery turbo-field-echo (TFE) sequences for cortical multiple sclerosis lesions at 7 T. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Autopsied brain tissue from individuals with multiple sclerosis was scanned with 3-dimensional T2*GRE and 3-dimensional inversion recovery(More)
HIGHLIGHTSPsychological stress activates neuroendocrine pathways that alter immune responses.Stress-induced alterations in microglia phenotype and monocyte priming leads to aberrant peripheral and central inflammation.Elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels caused by microglia activation and recruitment of monocytes to the brain contribute to development(More)
Altered inflammatory cytokine profiles are often observed in individuals suffering from major depression. Recent clinical work reports on elevated IL-6 and decreased IL-10 in depression. Elevated IL-6 has served as a consistent biomarker of depression and IL-10 is proposed to influence depressive behavior through its ability to counterbalance(More)
Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is an inflammatory cytokine that plays a prominent role in stress-induced behavioral changes. In a model of repeated social defeat (RSD), elevated IL-1β expression in the brain was associated with recruitment of primed macrophages that were necessary for development of anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, microglia activation and(More)
BACKGROUND Persistent anxiety-like symptoms may have an inflammatory-related pathophysiology. Our previous work using repeated social defeat (RSD) in mice showed that recruitment of peripheral myeloid cells to the brain is required for the development of anxiety. Here, we aimed to determine if 1) RSD promotes prolonged anxiety through redistribution of(More)
Depression and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are highly comorbid disorders that carry a large public health burden. However, there is a clear lack of knowledge of the neural pathological pathways underlying these illnesses. The present study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which a diet rich in fat can cause multiple complications in the brain, thereby(More)
Data from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that immune dysregulation, specifically of inflammatory processes, is associated with symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD). In particular, increased levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines and concomitant activation of brain-resident microglia can lead to depressive behavioural symptoms.(More)