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The 22q11 deletion (or DiGeorge) syndrome (22q11DS), the result of a 1.5- to 3-megabase hemizygous deletion on human chromosome 22, results in dramatically increased susceptibility for "diseases of cortical connectivity" thought to arise during development, including schizophrenia and autism. We show that diminished dosage of the genes deleted in the(More)
Interneurons are thought to be a primary pathogenic target for several behavioral disorders that arise during development, including schizophrenia and autism. It is not known, however, whether genetic lesions associated with these diseases disrupt established molecular mechanisms of interneuron development. We found that diminished 22q11.2 gene dosage-the(More)
Neural precursors in the developing olfactory epithelium (OE) give rise to three major neuronal classes - olfactory receptor (ORNs), vomeronasal (VRNs) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. Nevertheless, the molecular and proliferative identities of these precursors are largely unknown. We characterized two precursor classes in the olfactory(More)
Post-traumatic epilepsy continues to be a major concern for those experiencing traumatic brain injury. Post-traumatic epilepsy accounts for 10-20% of epilepsy cases in the general population. While seizure prophylaxis can prevent early onset seizures, no available treatments effectively prevent late-onset seizure. Little is known about the progression of(More)
Olfactory systems serve as excellent model systems for the study of numerous widespread aspects of neural development and also for the elucidation of features peculiar to the formation of neural circuits specialized to process odor inputs. Accumulated research reveals a fine balance between developmental autonomy of olfactory structures and intercellular(More)
We defined the cellular mechanisms for genesis, migration, and differentiation of the initial population of olfactory bulb (OB) interneurons. This cohort of early generated cells, many of which become postmitotic on embryonic day (E) 14.5, differentiates into a wide range of mature OB interneurons by postnatal day (P) 21, and a substantial number remains in(More)
We asked whether specific mesenchymal/epithelial (M/E) induction generates olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs), vomeronasal neurons (VRNs), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, the major neuron classes associated with the olfactory epithelium (OE). To assess specificity of M/E-mediated neurogenesis, we compared the influence of frontonasal(More)
We characterized intrinsic and extrinsic specification of progenitors in the lateral and medial ganglionic eminences (LGE and MGE). We identified seven genes whose expression is enriched or restricted in either the LGE [biregional cell adhesion molecule-related/downregulated by oncogenes binding protein (Boc), Frizzled homolog 8 (Fzd8), Ankrd43 (ankyrin(More)
DiGeorge, or 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS), the most common survivable human genetic deletion disorder, is caused by deletion of a minimum of 32 contiguous genes on human chromosome 22, and presumably results from diminished dosage of one, some, or all of these genes--particularly during development. Nevertheless, the normal functions of 22q11 genes in(More)
Changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) induced by depolarization have been measured in glial cells acutely isolated from antennal lobes of the moth Manduca sexta at different postembryonic developmental stages. Depolarization of the glial cell membrane was elicited by increasing the external K(+) concentration from 4 to 25 mM. At(More)