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—Millimeter-wave radar-based sensors are being considered for a number of automotive applications including obstacle detection and collision warning, true-speed, and road-surface recognition. In this paper, the interaction of electromagnetic waves with asphalt road surfaces, possibly covered with ice or water, at millimeter-wave frequencies is studied.(More)
—Accurate determination of spatial soil moisture distribution and monitoring its temporal variation have a significant impact on the outcomes of hydrologic, ecologic, and climatic models. Development of a successful remote sensing instrument for soil moisture relies on the accurate knowledge of the soil dielectric constant (soil) to its moisture content.(More)
— This study, consisting of three complimentary topics , examines of the millimeter-wave backscattering behavior of terrain at incidence angles extending between 70 and 90 , corresponding to grazing angles of 20 to 0. The first topic addresses the character of the statistical variability of the radar backscattering cross section per unit area A. Based on an(More)
—Systematic characterization of the scattering behavior of traffic targets, clutter, and their associated interactions are required in order to design and assess the performance of millimeter-wave-based sensors for automated highway system (AHS) applications. In this paper, the polarimetric radar backscatter response of various road surfaces is investigated(More)
—In this paper, a stochastic optimization algorithm is used to characterize the polarization states of a nonpolarimetric radar transmitter and receiver antennas for optimal target classification. Specifically, the optimized solution is sought when a multitude of targets are to be categorized. It is shown that the objective function of the optimization(More)
—In this paper, measurements and models for the po-larimetric backscatter response of various point targets on roads and road surface faults is presented. Of particular interest are debris and faults that could lead to fatal accidents and damage of property. A desired safety feature for automotive radar sensors is the capability of detecting such debris and(More)
  • E S Li
  • 1989
The historical review and the necessity of establishment of the Chinese Classification of Diseases (CCD) and Coding System are described. The content, terms used for unified and standardized nomenclatures, coding system including diagnostic terms of traditional Chinese medicine and other codings are introduced. The utility of the CCD system in medical(More)