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Systematic characterization of the scattering behavior of traffic targets, clutter, and their associated interactions are required in order to design and assess the performance of millimeter-wave-based sensors for automated highway system (AHS) applications. In this paper, the polarimetric radar backscatter response of various road surfaces is investigated(More)
Accurate determination of spatial soil moisture distribution and monitoring its temporal variation have a significant impact on the outcomes of hydrologic, ecologic, and climatic models. Development of a successful remote sensing instrument for soil moisture relies on the accurate knowledge of the soil dielectric constant ( soil) to its moisture content.(More)
Millimeter-wave radar-based sensors are being considered for a number of automotive applications including obstacle detection and collision warning, true-speed, and road-surface recognition. In this paper, the interaction of electromagnetic waves with asphalt road surfaces, possibly covered with ice or water, at millimeter-wave frequencies is studied.(More)
In this paper, a stochastic optimization algorithm is used to characterize the polarization states of a nonpolarimetric radar transmitter and receiver antennas for optimal target classification. Specifically, the optimized solution is sought when a multitude of targets are to be categorized. It is shown that the objective function of the optimization(More)
This study, consisting of three complimentary topics, examines of the millimeter-wave backscattering behavior of terrain at incidence angles extending between 70 and 90 , corresponding to grazing angles of 20 to 0 . The first topic addresses the character of the statistical variability of the radar backscattering cross section per unit area A. Based on an(More)
In this paper, measurements and models for the polarimetric backscatter response of various point targets on roads and road surface faults is presented. Of particular interest are debris and faults that could lead to fatal accidents and damage of property. A desired safety feature for automotive radar sensors is the capability of detecting such debris and(More)
A measurement technique is proposed to conduct S-parameter measurements on symmetrical reciprocal threeport devices using a two-port vector network analyzer. The technique takes the effects of reflection from an unmeasured port terminated with a non-ideal 50load into consideration. These reflected signals cause errors in S-parameter measurements, especially(More)
The historical review and the necessity of establishment of the Chinese Classification of Diseases (CCD) and Coding System are described. The content, terms used for unified and standardized nomenclatures, coding system including diagnostic terms of traditional Chinese medicine and other codings are introduced. The utility of the CCD system in medical(More)
This paper proposes a design to reduce the size of traditional stepped-impedance low-pass filters and a solution to the discontinuity problem encountered in the original design. In this design, the low-impedance sections of the traditional design are replaced by periodical structures with shunt elements. The structure itself features size reduction and the(More)