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The gastrointestinal tracts of mammals are colonized by hundreds of microbial species that contribute to health, including colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens. Many antibiotics destroy intestinal microbial communities and increase susceptibility to intestinal pathogens. Among these, Clostridium difficile, a major cause of antibiotic-induced(More)
The composition of the intestinal microbiota influences the development of inflammatory disorders. However, associating inflammatory diseases with specific microbial members of the microbiota is challenging, because clinically detectable inflammation and its treatment can alter the microbiota's composition. Immunologic checkpoint blockade with ipilimumab, a(More)
Highly diverse bacterial populations inhabit the gastrointestinal tract and modulate host inflammation and promote immune tolerance. In allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), the gastrointestinal mucosa is damaged, and colonizing bacteria are impacted, leading to an impaired intestinal microbiota with reduced diversity. We examined(More)
The relationship between intestinal microbiota composition and acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic blood/marrow transplantation (allo-BMT) is not well understood. Intestinal bacteria have long been thought to contribute to GVHD pathophysiology, but recent animal studies in nontransplant settings have found that anti-inflammatory effects(More)
RATIONALE Pulmonary complications (PCs) cause significant morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Shifts in gut microbiota have been linked to HCT outcomes; however, their effect on PCs is unknown. OBJECTIVES To investigate whether changes in gut microbiota are associated with PCs after HCT. METHODS A(More)
Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is frequently diagnosed in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We characterized early-transplant CDI and its associations, and analyzed serially-collected feces to determine intestinal carriage of toxigenic C. difficile. Fecal specimens were collected longitudinally from 94(More)
Purpose The major causes of mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation (allo-HCT) are relapse, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and infection. We have reported previously that alterations in the intestinal flora are associated with GVHD, bacteremia, and reduced overall survival after allo-HCT. Because intestinal bacteria are potent(More)
The gastrointestinal tracts of mammals are colonized by hundreds of microbial species that contribute to health, including colonization resistance against intestinal pathogens 1. Many antibiotics destroy intestinal microbial communities and increase susceptibility to intestinal pathogens 2. Among these, Clostridium difficile, a major cause of(More)
Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a frequent complication in recipients of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), who receive intensive treatments that significantly disrupt the intestinal microbiota. In this study, we examined the microbiota composition of allo-HSCT recipients to identify bacterial colonizers that(More)
Background Daily trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) and insecticide treated nets (ITNs) remain the main interventions for prevention of malaria in HIV-infected pregnant women in Africa. However, antifolate and pyrethroid resistance threaten the effectiveness of these intervention and new ones are needed. Methods We conducted a double-blind randomized(More)