Learn More
BACKGROUND The incidence of obesity has risen dramatically over the last few decades. This epidemic may be affected by exposure to xenobiotic chemicals. Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, is detectable at nanomolar levels in human serum worldwide. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific hormone that increases insulin sensitivity and reduces tissue(More)
Pituitary-derived prolactin (PRL) is a well-known regulator of the lactating mammary gland. However, the recent discovery that human adipose tissue produces PRL as well as expresses the PRL receptor (PRLR) highlights a previously unappreciated action of PRL as a cytokine involved in adipose tissue function. Biologically active PRL is secreted by all adipose(More)
New information about the effects of prolactin (PRL) on metabolic processes warrants re-evaluation of the overall metabolic actions of PRL. PRL affects metabolic homeostasis by regulating key enzymes and transporters that are associated with glucose and lipid metabolism in several target organs. In the lactating mammary gland, PRL increases the production(More)
Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the most prevalent and best studied endocrine disruptors. After years of exposure to consumer products containing BPA, most individuals tested have circulating BPA at the low nanomolar levels. In addition to its well documented actions on the reproductive system, BPA exerts a wide variety of metabolic effects. This review(More)
The proinflammatory status of adipose tissue has been linked to the metabolic and cardiovascular consequences of obesity. Human adipose cells express the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), and its expression is elevated in inflammatory states, such as that associated with obesity. Given the CaSR's association with inflammation in other tissues, we evaluated(More)
Adipose tissue is an integral component within the endocrine system. Adipocytes produce numerous bioactive substances, and their dysregulation has serious pathophysiological consequences. We previously reported that human adipose tissue from several depots produces significant amounts of prolactin (PRL). To study locally produced PRL, we sought an(More)
IL-6 is an important cytokine that regulates both immune and metabolic functions. Within adipose tissue, preadipocytes produce significant amounts of IL-6, but little is known about the factors or mechanisms that regulate IL-6 production in these cells. Using LS14, a newly developed human adipocyte cell line, our objective was to determine the mechanisms by(More)
Obesity-associated health complications are thought to be in part due to the low-grade proinflammatory state that characterizes this disease. The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR), which is expressed in human adipose cells, plays an important role in diseases involving inflammation. To assess the relevance of this protein in adipose pathophysiology, we(More)
This review summarizes knowledge about the structure of nuclear genes and mitochondrial DNA in Acanthamoeba. The information about nuclear genes is derived from studies of DNA, RNA and protein sequences. The genes considered are those for 5S, 5.8S and 18S rRNA, actin I, profilins Ia/b and II, myosins IB, IC and II, and calmodulin. All of the sequences show(More)
Prostate and breast cancers affect millions of men and women, respectively. Advanced forms of the disease, which can no longer be controlled by hormonal disruption or chemotherapy, have very limited treatment options. Consequently, there is a major benefit to identify new targets for therapy in both types of cancer. The prolactin (PRL) signaling cascade, by(More)