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Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites infesting many animal groups. Lacking mitochondria and peroxysomes, these unicellular eukaryotes were first considered a deeply branching protist lineage that diverged before the endosymbiotic event that led to mitochondria. The discovery of a gene for a mitochondrial-type chaperone combined with molecular(More)
Microsporidia are eukaryotic parasites lacking mitochondria, the ribosomes of which present prokaryote-like features. In order to better understand the structural evolution of rRNA molecules in microsporidia, the 5S and rDNA genes were investigated in Encephalitozoon cuniculi . The genes are not in close proximity. Non-tandemly arranged rDNA units are on(More)
An intronless gene encoding a protein of 592 amino acid residues with similarity to 70-kDa heat shock proteins (HSP70s) has been cloned and sequenced from the amitochondrial protist Encephalitozoon cuniculi (phylum Microsporidia). Southern blot analyses show the presence of a single gene copy located on chromosome XI. The encoded protein exhibits an(More)
A seventh order of methanogens, the Methanomassiliicoccales, has been identified in diverse anaerobic environments including the gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of humans and other animals and may contribute significantly to methane emission and global warming. Methanomassiliicoccales are phylogenetically distant from all other orders of methanogens and(More)
"Candidatus Methanomassiliicoccus intestinalis" Issoire-Mx1 is a methanogenic archaeon found in the human gut and is a representative of the novel order of methanogens related to Thermoplasmatales. Its complete genome sequence is presented here.
Evaluating the composition of the human gut microbiota greatly facilitates studies on its role in human pathophysiology, and is heavily reliant on culture-independent molecular methods. A microarray designated the Human Gut Chip (HuGChip) was developed to analyze and compare human gut microbiota samples. The PhylArray software was used to design specific(More)
BACKGROUND Ileal lesions of Crohn's disease (CD) patients are abnormally colonized by pathogenic adherent-invasive Escherichia coli (AIEC) able to invade and to replicate within intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We report here the complete genome sequence of E. coli LF82, the reference strain of adherent-invasive E. coli(More)
MOTIVATION The use of DNA microarrays allows the monitoring of the extreme microbial diversity encountered in complex samples like environmental ones as well as that of their functional capacities. However, no probe design software currently available is adapted to easily design efficient and explorative probes for functional gene arrays. RESULTS We(More)
Genomic projects heavily depend on genome annotations and are limited by the current deficiencies in the published predictions of gene structure and function. It follows that, improved annotation will allow better data mining of genomes, and more secure planning and design of experiments. The purpose of the GeneFarm project is to obtain homogeneous,(More)
Microsporidia are fungi-related obligate intracellular parasites with a highly reduced and compact genome, as for Encephalitozoon species which harbor a genome smaller than 3 Mbp. Genome compaction is reflected by high gene density and, for larger microsporidian genomes, size variation is due to repeat elements that do not drastically affect gene density.(More)