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Cytotoxicity of human NK cells is under negative control of killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR) specific for HLA class I. To determine the specificity of five KIR containing two Ig domains (KIR2D), direct binding of soluble recombinant KIR2D to a panel of HLA class I transfectants was assayed. One soluble KIR2D, derived from an inhibitory receptor with a(More)
Natural killer (NK)-cell recognition of infected or neoplastic cells can induce cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion. So far, it has been difficult to assess the relative contribution of multiple NK-cell activation receptors to cytokine and chemokine production upon target cell recognition. Using Drosophila cells expressing ligands for the NK-cell receptors(More)
The relative contribution to cytotoxicity of each of the multiple NK cell activation receptors has been difficult to assess. Using Drosophila insect cells, which express ligands of human NK cell receptors, we show that target cell lysis by resting NK cells is controlled by different receptor signals for cytolytic granule polarization and degranulation.(More)
Human natural killer (NK) cells express several killer cell immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptors (KIRs) that inhibit their cytotoxicity upon recognition of human histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules on target cells. Additional members of the KIR family, including some that deliver activation signals, have unknown ligand specificity and(More)
A stretch of 200 kilobases (kb) of DNA from the I region of the mouse major histocompatibility complex has been cloned and characterized. It contains the genes for the biochemically defined class II proteins E alpha, E beta and A beta. DNA blot analyses suggest that the I region may contain only 6-8 class II genes. Correlation of our molecular map with the(More)
Inhibitory natural killer (NK) cell receptors down-regulate the cytotoxicity of NK cells upon recognition of specific class I major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules on target cells. We report here the crystal structure of the inhibitory human killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor 2DL1 (KIR2DL1) bound to its class I MHC ligand, HLA-Cw4. The(More)
Signaling from endosomes is emerging as a mechanism by which selected receptors provide sustained signals distinct from those generated at the plasma membrane. The activity of natural killer (NK) cells, which are important effectors of innate immunity and regulators of adaptive immunity, is controlled primarily by receptors that are at the cell surface.(More)
Major histocompatibility complex class I-specific inhibitory receptors on natural killer cells prevent the lysis of healthy autologous cells. The outcome of this negative signal is not anergy or apoptosis of natural killer cells but a transient abortion of activation signals. The natural killer inhibitory receptors fulfill this function by recruiting the(More)