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Immunization of mice with live or heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) efficiently primes pathogen-specific CD8(+) T cells. T lymphocytes primed by HKLM, however, undergo attenuated proliferation and do not fully differentiate. Thus, only infection with live bacteria induces long-term, CD8(+) T cell-mediated protective immunity. In this study we(More)
Leishmania major parasites reside and multiply in late endosomal compartments of host phagocytic cells. Immune control of Leishmania growth absolutely requires expression of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS/NOS2) and subsequent production of NO. Here, we show that CD11b+ CD11c+ Ly-6C+ MHC-II+ cells are the main iNOS-producing cells in the footpad(More)
Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) is a bacterial enterotoxin able to simultaneously bind to class II molecules on APCs and to selected V beta regions (including V beta 8) of the TCR complex. Administration of SEB to adult BALB/c mice results in clonal activation of T cells bearing V beta 8 receptors, leading to an excessive release of proinflammatory(More)
Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial intracellular signaling molecule. We have shown that treatment with exogenous c-di-GMP inhibits Staphylococcus aureus infection in a mouse model. We now report that c-di-GMP is an immodulator and immunostimulatory molecule. Intramammary treatment of mice with c-di-GMP 12 and 6 h before S. aureus challenge gave a(More)
IFN-gamma is a key cytokine controlling Brucella infection. One of its major function is the stimulation of Brucella-killing effector mechanisms, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS)/NOS2 activity, in phagocytic cells. In this study, an attempt to identify the main cellular components of the immune response induced by Brucella melitensis in vivo is made.(More)
Fc gammaRIIB are single-chain low-affinity receptors for IgG that bear an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motif (ITIM) in their intracytoplasmic domain and that negatively regulate immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent cell activation. In B cells, coaggregation of the B cell receptor (BCR) and Fc gammaRIIB leads to an(More)
Type I interferon gene induction relies on IKK-related kinase TBK1 and IKKepsilon-mediated phosphorylations of IRF3/7 through the Toll-like receptor-dependent signaling pathways. The scaffold proteins that assemble these kinase complexes are poorly characterized. We show here that TANK/ITRAF is required for the TBK1- and IKKepsilon-mediated IRF3/7(More)
Exogenous glucocorticoid hormones are widely used as therapeutical agents, whereas endogenous glucocorticoids may act as physiological immunosuppressants involved in the control of immune and inflammatory responses. The optimal activation of T lymphocytes requires two distinct signals: the major histocompatibility complex-restricted presentation of the(More)
Based on the observation that pathogen-derived lectins play an important role in cell adhesion and invasion, we examined the possible role of host carbohydrate-bearing molecules in inducing the secretion of IL-12, a crucial proinflammatory cytokine. The ability of 12 plant lectins to recognize and stimulate naive murine mononuclear cells in vitro has been(More)
The identification of subsets of CD4+ helper cells producing distinct pattern of cytokines has provided a valuable framework for understanding how different effector populations of immune cells can be recruited in vivo during infection. In the view of most investigators, Th1 and Th2 cells produce factors that serve as their own autocrine factors and(More)