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Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial intracellular signaling molecule. We have shown that treatment with exogenous c-di-GMP inhibits Staphylococcus aureus infection in a mouse model. We now report that c-di-GMP is an immodulator and immunostimulatory molecule. Intramammary treatment of mice with c-di-GMP 12 and 6 h before S. aureus challenge gave a(More)
Leishmania major parasites reside and multiply in late endosomal compartments of host phagocytic cells. Immune control of Leishmania growth absolutely requires expression of inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS/NOS2) and subsequent production of NO. Here, we show that CD11b+ CD11c+ Ly-6C+ MHC-II+ cells are the main iNOS-producing cells in the footpad(More)
IFN-gamma is a key cytokine controlling Brucella infection. One of its major function is the stimulation of Brucella-killing effector mechanisms, such as inducible NO synthase (iNOS)/NOS2 activity, in phagocytic cells. In this study, an attempt to identify the main cellular components of the immune response induced by Brucella melitensis in vivo is made.(More)
Dendritic cells (DC) are described as "nature's adjuvant," since they have the capacity to sensitize T cells in vivo upon first encounter with the antigen. The potent accessory properties of DC appear to develop sequentially. In particular, the ability to process antigens and to sensitize native T cells develops in sequence, a process termed "maturation"(More)
Host resistance to the intracellular protozoan Leishmania major is highly dependent on IL-12 production by APCs. Genetically resistant C57BL/6 mice develop IL-12-mediated Th1 immune response dominated by IFN-gamma and exhibit only small cutaneous lesions that resolve spontaneously. In contrast, because of several genetic differences, BALB/c mice develop an(More)
Brucella are facultative intracellular bacteria that chronically infect humans and animals causing brucellosis. Brucella are able to invade and replicate in a broad range of cell lines in vitro, however the cells supporting bacterial growth in vivo are largely unknown. In order to identify these, we used a Brucella melitensis strain stably expressing(More)
The classical view of the Th1/Th2 paradigm posits that the pathogen nature, infectious cycle, and persistence represent key parameters controlling the choice of effector mechanisms operating during an immune response. Thus, efficient Th1 responses are triggered by replicating intracellular pathogens, while Th2 responses would control helminth infection and(More)
Cells of the dendritic cell (DC) lineage, by their unique ability to stimulate naive T cells, may be of crucial importance in the development of protective immune responses to Leishmania parasites. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of L. major infection on DCs in BALB/c (susceptible, developing Th2 responses), C57BL/6 (resistant, developing(More)
The germinative ventricular zone of embryonic brain contains neural lineage progenitor cells that give rise to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The ability to generate neurons persists at adulthood in restricted brain areas. During development, many growth factors exert their effects by interacting with tyrosine kinase receptors and activate the(More)
Viewed from a neo-Darwinian perspective , the main function of the metazoan immune system (IS) is to insure host integrity against invading microorganisms, which are only considered as selfish competitors that reduce the host's resources , inflict tissue damage, and ultimately compromise host fitness. Coevolution of the host and these competitors has been(More)