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BACKGROUND Dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury (AKI) is common among critically ill patients, but little is known about trends in the incidence and outcomes of this condition over time. STUDY DESIGN Population-based cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS All adult patients admitted to an intensive care unit in Ontario, Canada, 1996 to 2010. PREDICTOR(More)
Association BetweenGadoliniumContrast Exposure and the Risk of Parkinsonism Gadolinium-based contrast agents are used for enhancement during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Safety concerns have emerged over retained gadolinium in the globus pallidi.1,2 Neurotoxic effects have been seen in animals and when gadolinium is given intrathecally in humans.1 In(More)
BACKGROUND Calcium channel blocker (CCB) use in elderly patients lowers blood pressure and can increase the risk of falls and fractures. These drugs are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) enzyme, and blood concentrations of these drugs may rise to harmful levels when CYP3A4 activity is inhibited. Clarithromycin is an inhibitor of CYP3A4,(More)
BACKGROUND Atenolol and metoprolol tartrate are commonly prescribed β-blockers. Atenolol elimination depends on kidney function, whereas metoprolol tartrate does not. We hypothesized that compared to metoprolol tartrate, initiating oral atenolol treatment would be associated with more adverse events in older adults, with the association most pronounced in(More)
Knowing a person's fracture risk according to their kidney function, gender, and age may influence clinical management and decision-making. Using healthcare databases from Ontario, Canada, we conducted a cohort study of 679,114 adults of 40 years and over (mean age 62 years) stratified at cohort entry by estimated glomerular filtration rate ((eGFR) 60 and(More)
BACKGROUND Young women wishing to become living kidney donors frequently ask whether nephrectomy will affect their future pregnancies. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study of living kidney donors involving 85 women (131 pregnancies after cohort entry) who were matched in a 1:6 ratio with 510 healthy nondonors from the general population (788(More)
IMPORTANCE Calcium-channel blockers are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4; EC enzyme. Blood concentrations of these drugs may rise to harmful levels when CYP3A4 activity is inhibited. Clarithromycin is an inhibitor of CYP3A4 and azithromycin is not, which makes comparisons between these 2 macrolide antibiotics useful in assessing(More)
We have compared patient-controlled epidural fentanyl (PCEF) and patient-controlled i.v. morphine (PCIM) after Caesarean section in 84 patients, in a randomized, double-blind study. All patients had an epidural and an i.v. patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) device, one of which delivered normal saline. Group PCEF received epidural fentanyl 20 micrograms(More)
BACKGROUND Many respiratory tract infections are treated with macrolide antibiotics. Regulatory agencies warn that these antibiotics increase the risk of ventricular arrhythmia. We examined the 30-day risk of ventricular arrhythmia and all-cause mortality associated with macrolide antibiotics relative to nonmacrolide antibiotics. METHODS We conducted a(More)
BACKGROUND Survivors of acute kidney injury are at an increased risk of developing irreversible deterioration in kidney function and in some cases, the need for chronic dialysis. We aimed to determine predictors of chronic dialysis and death among survivors of dialysis-requiring acute kidney injury. METHODS We used linked administrative databases in(More)