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The primary malignancies of the biliary tract, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, often present at an advanced stage and are marginally sensitive to radiation and chemotherapy. Accumulating evidence indicates that molecularly targeted agents may provide new hope for improving treatment response in biliary tract carcinoma (BTC). In this article, we(More)
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is the 10th most common malignancy in the United States but is responsible for the 4th most cancer related deaths. This disease can only be potentially cured through early discovery and complete surgical resection. Unfortunately, nearly half of patients have metastatic spread at presentation. Combination chemotherapy with(More)
We present 2 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who had progressed despite treatment with first-line FOLFOX and second-line FOLFIRI combination chemotherapy regimens. After failing these fluoropyrimidine-based regimens, both patients received additional cytotoxic and targeted therapies with eventual disease progression. These therapies included(More)
For biliary tract carcinoma (BTC), complete surgical resection of tumor is only feasible in a minority of patients, and the treatment options for patients with unresectable or metastatic disease are limited. Advances in cancer immunology have led to identification of tumor-infiltrating immune cells as indicators of prognosis and response to treatment in(More)
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly lethal disease, therefore effective and tolerable treatment is urgently needed. In this article, we provide an updated review of the genetic abnormalities and mechanisms that drive carcinogenesis of HCC, and discuss the targeted therapeutics that are being investigated in HCC. Hepatocellular carcinogenesis(More)
We present the case of a 43-year-old-man with wild-type KRAS and BRAF colorectal adenocarcinoma that was metastatic to the liver and lung. The patient initially received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFOX and bevacizumab, followed by surgical resection of the primary tumor and hepatic metastases. His disease recurred shortly after surgery and he was(More)
i ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Special recognition is given to the participants in the tissue working group. Without their intellectual input, long hours of debate and willingness to think outside the box, this project would never have been completed. We would also like to acknowledge the efforts of Kathi Hanna and Roger Aamodt as our science writers. The quality of(More)