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In this paper, we show how ElectroEncephaloGraphic (EEG) and MagnetoEncephaloGraphic (MEG) data can be analyzed statistically using nonparametric techniques. Nonparametric statistical tests offer complete freedom to the user with respect to the test statistic by means of which the experimental conditions are compared. This freedom provides a straightforward(More)
This paper describes FieldTrip, an open source software package that we developed for the analysis of MEG, EEG, and other electrophysiological data. The software is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox and includes a complete set of consistent and user-friendly high-level functions that allow experimental neuroscientists to analyze experimental data. It includes(More)
Although studies in animals and patients have demonstrated that brain oscillations play a role in declarative memory encoding and retrieval, little has been done to investigate the temporal dynamics and sources of brain activity in healthy human subjects performing such tasks. In a magnetoencephalography study using pictorial stimuli, we have now identified(More)
Repetition suppression, the phenomenon that the second presentation of a stimulus attenuates neural activity, is typically viewed as an automatic consequence of repeated stimulus presentation. However, a recent neuroimaging study has suggested that repetition suppression may be driven by top-down expectations. Here we examined whether and when repetition(More)
Many important questions in neuroscience are about interactions between neurons or neuronal groups. These interactions are often quantified by coherence, which is a frequency-indexed measure that quantifies the extent to which two signals exhibit a consistent phase relation. In this paper, we consider the statistical testing of the difference between(More)
Our perception is facilitated if we know where and when a sensory stimulus will occur. This phenomenon is accounted for by spatial and temporal orienting of attention. Whereas spatial orienting of attention has repeatedly been shown to involve spatially specific modulations of ongoing oscillations within sensory cortex, it is not clear to what extent(More)
Gesture and speech are assumed to form an integrated system during language production. Based on this view, we propose the integrated-systems hypothesis, which explains two ways in which gesture and speech are integrated--through mutual and obligatory interactions--in language comprehension. Experiment 1 presented participants with action primes (e.g.,(More)
The role of oscillatory alpha activity (8-13 Hz) in cognitive processing remains an open question. It has been debated whether alpha activity plays a direct role in the neuronal processing required for a given task or whether it reflects idling and/or functional inhibition. Recent electroencephalography (EEG) studies have demonstrated that alpha activity(More)
In ERP studies, the comparison of topographies (multichannel measurements) or whole spatiotemporal data matrices (multichannel time series of measurements), the classical statistical tests very often cannot be used. It is argued that, for these comparisons, randomization tests are an excellent alternative. It is also argued that the randomization test is(More)
Paired associative stimulation (PAS), which combines repetitive peripheral nerve stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), may induce neuroplastic changes in somatosensory cortex (S1), possibly by long-term potentiation-like mechanisms. We used multichannel median nerve somatosensory evoked potential (MN-SSEP) recordings and two-point(More)