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Chemical control has highly expanded over the last 30 years in sub-Saharan Africa to reduce bio-aggressors on all crops. Pest management of fruits and vegetables by small farmers in sub-Saharan Africa have developed anarchically in a fuzzy regulation framework. Pesticide toxicity and excessive application are often criticized both by farmers and consumers.(More)
Despite huge gains in productivity, environmental impacts of industrial agriculture based on a few high-yielding crop cultivars and the massive use of chemical fertilisers and pesticides have led to a search for new pathways leading to more sustainable agriculture in both temperate and tropical regions. New strategies incorporating ecological knowledge(More)
Provisioning services, such as the production of food, feed, and fiber, have always been the main focus of agriculture. Since the 1950s, intensive cropping systems based on the cultivation of a single crop or a single cultivar, in simplified rotations or monocultures, and relying on extensive use of agrochemical inputs have been preferred to more diverse,(More)
Cocoa cultivation is generally considered to foster deforestation. Contrary to this view, in the forest–savannah interface area in Cameroon, farmers have planted cocoa agroforestry systems on Imperata cylindrica grasslands, a soil-climate zone generally considered unsuitable for cocoa cultivation. We undertook a survey to understand the agricultural and(More)
Ecosystems are increasingly manipulated for agricultural and conservation goals. Ecosystem functions need to be sustained socially and ecologically. New frameworks must be built to simulate agrosystems based on ecological processes instead of external chemicals. Food web structures of agrosystems highly influence their agronomical performance and stability.(More)
Pesticides are now occurring worldwide in almost all water resources, thus threatening the health of humans and other life. As a consequence, there is a strong social demand for designing safe cropping systems with less or no hazardous pesticides. Safe cropping systems can be designed now using pesticide transfer models. These models are mathematical tools(More)
Agroforestry systems in humid tropical areas are complex multispecies cropping systems whose value for farmers is often hard to assess. We present the findings of a participatory assessment that we applied to cocoa agroforestry systems. This assessment, adapted from the pebble distribution method, was used to quantify the value given by farmers to each(More)
Titles in the Working Paper Series aim to disseminate interim results on agroforestry research and practices and stimulate feedback from the scientific community. Other publication series from the World Agroforestry Centre include: Technical Manuals, Occasional Papers and the Trees for Change Series. The views expressed in this publication are those of the(More)
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