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Establishment and spread of infectious diseases are controlled by the frequency of contacts among hosts. Although managers can estimate transmission coefficients from the relationship between disease prevalence and age or time, they may wish to quantify or compare contact rates before a disease is established or while it is at very low prevalence. Our(More)
In eastern U.S. oak forests, defoliation by gypsy moths and the risk of Lyme disease are determined by interactions among acorns, white-footed mice, moths, deer, and ticks. Experimental removal of mice, which eat moth pupae, demonstrated that moth outbreaks are caused by reductions in mouse density that occur when there are no acorns. Experimental acorn(More)
Many pathogens and parasites attack multiple host species, so their ability to invade a host community can depend on host community composition. We present a graphical isocline framework for studying disease establishment in systems with two host species, based on treating host species as resources. The isocline approach provides a natural generalization to(More)
Variation in annual flowering effort is described for 16 long datasets from 11 species of Chionochloa (Poaceae) in New Zealand. All populations exhibited extreme mast seeding. The most variable species was C. crassiuscula (coefficient of variation, CV= 3.02) over 26 years at Takahe Valley, Fiordland, which is the highest published CV we know of worldwide.(More)
Variation in the size of home range of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has broad implications for managing populations, agricultural damage, and disease spread and transmission. Size of home range of deer also varies seasonally because plant phenology dictates the vegetation types that are used as foraging or resting sites. Knowledge of the(More)
Masting, the intermittent production of large flower or seed crops by a population of perennial plants, can enhance the reproductive success of participating plants and drive fluctuations in seed-consumer populations and other ecosystem components over large geographic areas. The spatial and taxonomic extent over which masting is synchronized can determine(More)
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Small rodents such as the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) and the eastern chipmunk (Tamias striatus) efficiently transmit Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, to feeding ticks, whereas other hosts of ticks are less efficient reservoirs of B. burgdorferi. We examined the roles of ground-foraging and ground-nesting songbirds as(More)
Spatial heterogeneity in risk is a critical component of predator-prey interactions. However, at small spatial scales, it is difficult to quantify predation risk without altering it. We used track plates to measure local predation risk created by white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) foraging activity on oak-forest plots in Millbrook, New York. Live(More)
Space use and juvenile recruitment in gray-tailed voles in response to intruder pressure and food abundance. Acta Theriologica 41: 35-43. We examined space use by female gray-tailed voles Microtus canicaudus (Miller, 1897) and recruitment of juveniles in response to relative abundance of food and increased intruder pressure following experimental removal of(More)