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Multisubunit cytokine receptors such as the heterotrimeric receptor for interleukin-2 (IL-2) are ubiquitous in hematopoeitic cell types of importance in biotechnology and are crucial regulators of cell proliferation and differentiation behavior. Dynamics of cytokine/receptor endocytic trafficking can significantly impact cell responses through effects of(More)
Cytokines can be engineered for greater potency in stimulating cellular functions. An obvious test criterion for an improved cytokine is receptor-binding affinity, but this does not always correlate with improved biological response. By combining protein-engineering techniques with studies of receptor trafficking and signaling, it might be possible to(More)
An interleukin-2 (IL-2) variant containing adjacent point mutations (L18M/L19S, termed 2D1) displaying binding affinity to the heterotrimeric IL-2 receptor similar to that of wild-type IL-2 (WT) had been previously found to surprisingly exhibit increased bioactivity in a peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation assay. In order to provide an explanatory(More)
After a cytokine binds to its receptor on the cell surface (pH approximately 7), the complex is internalized into acidic endosomal compartments (pH approximately 5-6), where partially unfolded intermediates can form. The nature of these structural transitions was studied for wild-type interleukin-2 (IL-2) and wild-type granulocyte colony-stimulating factor(More)
Most animals are faced with the challenge of securing food under the risk of predation. This frequently generates a trade-off whereby animals respond to predator cues with reduced movement to avoid predation at the direct cost of reduced foraging success. However, predators may also cause prey to be apprehensive in their foraging activities, which would(More)
The production of therapeutic proteins by mammalian cell culture is complex and sets high requirements for process, facility, and equipment design, as well as rigorous regulatory and quality standards. One particular point of concern and significant risk to supply chain is the susceptibility to contamination such as bacteria, fungi, mycoplasma, and viruses.(More)
The purification of recombinant proteins and antibodies using large packed-bed columns is a key component in most biotechnology purification processes. Because of its efficiency and established practice in the industry, column chromatography is a state of the art technology with a proven capability for removal of impurities, viral clearance, and process(More)
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