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Observations demonstrate that faults are fractal surfaces with deviations from planarity at all scales. We study dynamic rupture propagation on self-similar faults having root mean square (rms) height fluctuations of order 10 3 to 10 2 times the profile length. Our 2D plane strain models feature strongly rate-weakening fault friction and off-fault(More)
Elastodynamic considerations suggest that the acceleration of ruptures to supershear velocities is accompanied by the release of Rayleigh waves along the fault from the stress breakdown zone. These waves generate a secondary slip pulse trailing the rupture front, but manifest almost entirely in ground motion perpendicular to the fault in the near-source(More)
2 INTRODUCTION Large earthquakes strike infrequently and close-in recordings are uncommon. This situation makes it difficult to predict the ground motion very close to earthquake-generating faults, if the prediction is to be based on the observations that are readily available. A solution might be to cover the earth with seismic instruments, so that one(More)
[1] We model ruptures on faults that weaken in response to flash heating of microscopic asperity contacts (within a rate-and-state framework) and thermal pressurization of pore fluid. These are arguably the primary weakening mechanisms on mature faults at coseismic slip rates, at least prior to large slip accumulation. Ruptures on strongly rate-weakening(More)
Ground motion from two-dimensional steady state dynamic ruptures is examined for both subshear and supers-hear rupture velocities. Synthetic seismograms demonstrate that coherent high-frequency information about the source process rapidly attenuates with distance from the fault for subshear ruptures. Such records provide almost no resolution of the spatial(More)
Seismic data indicate that fault ruptures follow complicated paths with variable velocity because of inhomogeneities in initial stress or fracture energy. We report a phenomenon unique to three-dimensional cracks: Locally stronger fault sections, rather than slowing ruptures, drive them forward at velocities exceeding the shear wave speed. This supershear(More)
Introduction Numerical simulations of earthquake rupture dynamics are now common, yet it has been difficult to test the validity of these simulations because there have been few field observations and no analytic solutions with which to compare the results. This paper describes the Southern California Earthquake Center / U.S. Geological Survey (SCEC/USGS)(More)
We study dynamic rupture propagation on flat faults using 2D plane strain models featuring strongly rate-weakening fault friction (in a rate-and-state framework) and off-fault Drucker–Prager viscoplasticity. Plastic deformation bounds stresses near the rupture front and limits slip velocities to ∼10 m=s, a bound expected to be independent of earthquake(More)
We present a high-order difference method for problems in elastodynamics involving the interaction of waves with highly nonlinear frictional interfaces. We restrict our attention to two-dimensional antiplane problems involving deformation in only one direction. Jump conditions that relate tractions on the interface, or fault, to the relative sliding(More)
We develop a stable and high-order accurate finite difference method for problems in earthquake rupture dynamics in complex geometries with multiple faults. The bulk material is an isotropic elastic solid cut by pre-existing fault interfaces that accommodate relative motion of the material on the two sides. The fields across the interfaces are related(More)