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In most developed countries approximately 25% of adults with asthma are current cigarette smokers. Asthma and active cigarette smoking interact to cause more severe symptoms, accelerated decline in lung function, and impaired short-term therapeutic response to corticosteroids. Cigarette smoking may modify inflammation that is associated with asthma,(More)
Airway inflammation is central to the pathophysiology of asthma, with treatment directed towards modification of this inflammation and its consequences. The relationship between cigarette smoking and airway inflammation is also well described, but relatively little data are available on the potential influence of smoking on asthmatic airway inflammation and(More)
Experiments were designed to identify the neural cell type(s) responsible for the aromatization and 5 alpha-reduction of androgens in the rat hypothalamus. Primary cultures of fetal rat hypothalamic cells, which had enhanced neuronal morphology, were treated at various times after plating with kainic acid (KA), a neurotoxic agent which selectively destroys(More)
Cytokines produced by pancreatic acinar cells may mediate cell death and recruitment of inflammatory cells into pancreas in pancreatitis and other disorders. Here, we demonstrate mRNA expression for a number of cytokines in acini isolated from rat pancreas. Using RNA from microscopically selected individual cells, we confirmed the acinar cell as a source(More)
In previous studies, we have described several classes of methotrexate-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Although the RI class is resistant because of an altered target enzyme, dihydrofolate reductase, the RIII class derived from RI cells is somewhat more resistant because of a moderate amplification of the altered dhfr structural gene (Flintoff(More)
The study was designed to assess the effect of cigarette smoking on the therapeutic response to oral corticosteroids in chronic stable asthma. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study with prednisolone (40 mg daily) or placebo for 2 weeks in smokers with asthma, ex-smokers with asthma, and never-smokers with asthma. All subjects had(More)
BACKGROUND Neurotrophins (NTs) are a family of growth factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin3 (NT-3) that are involved in inflammation. Serum and induced sputum NT levels are increased in asthma and in cough because of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, respectively. Neurogenic inflammation is(More)
RATIONALE Active smoking in asthma is associated with worsening of symptoms, accelerated decline in lung function, and impaired response to corticosteroids. OBJECTIVES To examine the short-term effects of smoking cessation on lung function, airway inflammation, and corticosteroid responsiveness in smokers with asthma. METHODS AND MEASUREMENTS Smokers(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic cough often lasts for more than 1 year and is associated with airway inflammation. The effect of inhaled corticosteroids on symptom severity and inflammatory mediator levels in these patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE We sought to determine whether inhaled corticosteroids reduce cough severity and sputum mediator concentrations in patients(More)