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Bacterial type III secretion systems serve to translocate proteins into eukaryotic cells, requiring a secreton and a translocator for proteins to pass the bacterial and host membranes. We used the contact hemolytic activity of Shigella flexneri to investigate its putative translocator. Hemolysis was caused by formation of a 25-A pore within the red blood(More)
The secreton or type II secretion machinery of gram-negative bacteria includes several type IV pilin-like proteins (the pseudopilins) that are absolutely required for secretion. We previously reported the presence of a bundled pilus composed of the pseudopilin PulG on the surface of agar-grown Escherichia coli K-12 cells expressing the Klebsiella oxytoca(More)
Formins catalyze rapid filament growth from profilin-actin, by remaining processively bound to the elongating barbed end. The sequence of elementary reactions that describe filament assembly from profilin-actin at either free or formin-bound barbed ends is not fully understood. Specifically, the identity of the transitory complexes between profilin and(More)
The RAD52 epistasis group was identified in yeast as a group of genes required to repair DNA damaged by ionizing radiation [1]. Genetic evidence indicates that Rad52 functions in Rad51-dependent and Rad51-independent recombination pathways [2] [3] [4]. Consistent with this, purified yeast and human Rad52 proteins have been shown to promote single-strand DNA(More)
In a context of automation of cryo-electron microscopy, we developed a novel method for improving visibility of diffraction rings in the power spectra of cryo-electron micrographs of vitreous ice (without carbon film or high concentration of diffracting material). We used these enhanced spectra to semi-automatically detect and remove micrographs and/or(More)
Transmission electron microscopy is a powerful technique for studying the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a wide range of biological specimens. Knowledge of this structure is crucial for fully understanding complex relationships among macromolecular complexes and organelles in living cells. In this paper, we present the principles and main application(More)
The joint use of 3 complementary techniques, namely, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) and Raman tweezers microspectroscopy (RTM), is proposed for a rapid characterisation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) of various origins. NTA is valuable for studying the size distribution and concentration, Cryo-EM is outstanding for(More)
In Bacillus subtilis, expression of the rocG gene, encoding glutamate dehydrogenase, and the rocABC operon, involved in arginine catabolism, requires SigL (sigma(54))-containing RNA polymerase as well as RocR, a positive regulator of the NtrC/NifA family. The RocR protein was purified and shown to bind specifically to the intergenic region located between(More)
DNA condensation observed in vitro with the addition of polyvalent counterions is due to intermolecular attractive forces. We introduce a quantitative model of these forces in a Brownian dynamics simulation in addition to a standard mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann repulsion. The comparison of a theoretical value of the effective diameter calculated from the(More)
Eukaryotic and archaeal translation initiation complexes have a common structural core comprising e/aIF1, e/aIF1A, the ternary complex (TC, e/aIF2-GTP-Met-tRNAi(Met)) and mRNA bound to the small ribosomal subunit. e/aIF2 plays a crucial role in this process but how this factor controls start codon selection remains unclear. Here, we present cryo-EM(More)
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