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Bacterial type III secretion systems serve to translocate proteins into eukaryotic cells, requiring a secreton and a translocator for proteins to pass the bacterial and host membranes. We used the contact hemolytic activity of Shigella flexneri to investigate its putative translocator. Hemolysis was caused by formation of a 25-A pore within the red blood(More)
Type III secretion systems (TTSSs or secretons), essential virulence determinants of many Gram-negative bacteria, serve to translocate proteins directly from the bacteria into the host cytoplasm. Electron microscopy (EM) indicates that the TTSSs of Shigella flexneri are composed of: (1) an external needle; (2) a transmembrane domain; and (3) a cytoplasmic(More)
Gram-negative bacteria commonly interact with animal and plant hosts using type III secretion systems (TTSSs) for translocation of proteins into eukaryotic cells during infection. 10 of the 25 TTSS-encoding genes are homologous to components of the bacterial flagellar basal body, which the TTSS needle complex morphologically resembles. This indicates a(More)
Dengue virus (DENV) causes the major arboviral disease of the tropics, characterized in its severe forms by signs of hemorrhage and plasma leakage. DENV encodes a nonstructural glycoprotein, NS1, that associates with intracellular membranes and the cell surface. NS1 is eventually secreted as a soluble hexamer from DENV-infected cells and circulates in the(More)
In phosphate-rich environments, vivianite (Fe(II)(3)(PO(4))(2), 8H(2)O) is an important sink for dissolved Fe(II) and is considered as a very stable mineral due to its low solubility at neutral pH. In the present study, we report the mineralogical transformation of vivianite in cultures of the nitrate-reducing iron-oxidizing bacterial strain BoFeN1 in the(More)
The secreton or type II secretion machinery of gram-negative bacteria includes several type IV pilin-like proteins (the pseudopilins) that are absolutely required for secretion. We previously reported the presence of a bundled pilus composed of the pseudopilin PulG on the surface of agar-grown Escherichia coli K-12 cells expressing the Klebsiella oxytoca(More)
The three-dimensional structure of the hexameric (alphabeta)(6) 1.2-MDa complex formed by glutamate synthase has been determined at subnanometric resolution by combining cryoelectron microscopy, small angle x-ray scattering, and molecular modeling, providing for the first time a molecular model of this complex iron-sulfur flavoprotein. In the hexameric(More)
In Bacillus subtilis, expression of the rocG gene, encoding glutamate dehydrogenase, and the rocABC operon, involved in arginine catabolism, requires SigL (sigma(54))-containing RNA polymerase as well as RocR, a positive regulator of the NtrC/NifA family. The RocR protein was purified and shown to bind specifically to the intergenic region located between(More)
Bcl-2 is a prosurvival factor that reportedly prevents the nonspecific permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes, yet enhances specific ADP/ATP exchange by these organelles. Here, we show that Bcl-2 enhances the ADP/ATP exchange in proteoliposomes containing the purified adenine nucleotide translocase (ANT) in isolated mitochondria and mitoplasts, as well(More)
The RAD52 epistasis group was identified in yeast as a group of genes required to repair DNA damaged by ionizing radiation [1]. Genetic evidence indicates that Rad52 functions in Rad51-dependent and Rad51-independent recombination pathways [2] [3] [4]. Consistent with this, purified yeast and human Rad52 proteins have been shown to promote single-strand DNA(More)