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BACKGROUND Safe and effective treatment for chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain remains a key unmet medical need for many patients. The recent discovery and description of the transient receptor potential family of receptors including TRPV1 and TRPA1 has provided a number of potential new therapeutic targets for treating chronic pain. Recent reports(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a potent neuropeptide that plays a key role in the pathophysiology of migraine headache. CGRP levels in the cranial circulation are increased during a migraine attack, and CGRP itself has been shown to trigger migraine-like headache. The correlation between CGRP release and migraine headache points to the potential(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has long been hypothesized to play a key role in migraine pathophysiology, and the advent of small-molecule antagonists has clearly demonstrated a clinical link between blocking the CGRP receptor and migraine efficacy.(More)
The calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) associates with the accessory protein RAMP1 to form a receptor for the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Multiple lines of evidence have implicated CGRP in the pathophysiology of migraine headache making the CGRP receptor an attractive target for development of small-molecule antagonists as a(More)
The clinical effectiveness of antagonizing the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor for relief of migraine pain has been clearly demonstrated, but the road to the development of these small molecule antagonists has been daunting. The key hurdle that needed to be overcome was the CGRP receptor itself. The vast majority of the current antagonists(More)
Incorporation of polar functionality into a series of highly potent calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonists was explored in an effort to improve pharmacokinetics. This strategy identified piperazinone analogues that possessed improved solubility at acidic pH and increased oral bioavailability in monkeys. Further optimization led to the(More)
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide that plays a key role in the pathophysiology of migraine headache. MK-0974 (telcagepant) is a potent and selective antagonist of the human and rhesus CGRP receptors and is currently in Phase III clinical studies for the acute treatment of migraine. The pharmacology of MK-0974 has been studied(More)
Rational modification of a previously identified spirohydantoin lead structure has identified a series of potent spiroazaoxindole CGRP receptor antagonists. The azaoxindole was found to be a general replacement for the hydantoin that consistently improved in vitro potency. The combination of the indanylspiroazaoxindole and optimized benzimidazolinones led(More)
Rational modification of the potent calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist MK-3207 led to a series of analogues with enhanced CNS penetrance and a convenient chemical handle for introduction of a radiolabel. A number of (11)C-tracers were synthesized and evaluated in vivo, leading to the identification of [(11)C]8 ([(11)C]MK-4232), the(More)
Lactobacillus brevis KB290 (KB290), a plant-derived probiotic lactic acid bacterium, reportedly improves gut health and stimulates immune function. Here we extensively investigated the geno-, acute, subacute, and subchronic toxicity of KB290 and its bacterial translocation potential. KB290 was non-mutagenic in the bacterial reverse mutation assay by the(More)