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Lysenin forms unitary large conductance pores in artificial bilayer membranes containing sphingomyelin. A population of lysenin pores inserted into such a bilayer membrane exhibited a dynamic negative conductance region, as predicted by a simple two-state model for voltage-gated channels. The recorded I-V curves demonstrated that lysenin pores inserted into(More)
Lysenin, a 297 amino acid pore-forming protein extracted from the coelomic fluid of the earthworm E. foetida, inserts constitutively open large conductance channels in natural and artificial lipid membranes containing sphingomyelin. The inserted channels show voltage regulation and slowly close at positive applied voltages. We report on the consequences of(More)
We demonstrate that 3 keV ion beams, formed from the common noble gasses, He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe, can controllably "sculpt" nanometer scale pores in silicon nitride films. Single nanometer control of structural dimensions in nanopores can be achieved with all ion species despite a very wide range of sputtering yields and surface energy depositions. Heavy(More)
The pore-forming toxin lysenin self-assembles large and stable conductance channels in natural and artificial lipid membranes. The lysenin channels exhibit unique regulation capabilities, which open unexplored possibilities to control the transport of ions and molecules through artificial and natural lipid membranes. Our investigations demonstrate that the(More)
All cell membranes are packed with proteins. The ability to investigate the regulatory mechanisms of protein channels in experimental conditions mimicking their congested native environment is crucial for understanding the environmental physicochemical cues that may fundamentally contribute to their functionality in natural membranes. Here we report on(More)
The pore-forming toxin lysenin self-inserts to form conductance channels in natural and artificial lipid membranes containing sphingomyelin. The inserted channels exhibit voltage regulation and hysteresis of the macroscopic current during the application of positive periodic voltage stimuli. We explored the bi-stable behavior of lysenin channels and present(More)
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