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Torpedo acetylcholinesterase (AcChoEase, EC 3.1.1.7) and human butyrylcholinesterase (BtChoEase, EC 3.1.1.8), while clearly differing in substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors, possess 53% sequence homology; this permitted modeling human BtChoEase on the basis of the three-dimensional structure of Torpedo AcChoEase. The modeled BtChoEase(More)
The collagen-tailed or asymmetric forms (A) represent a major component of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the neuromuscular junction of higher vertebrates. They are hetero-oligomeric molecules, in which tetramers of catalytic subunits of type T (AChET) are attached to the subunits of a triple-stranded collagen "tail." We report the cloning of a rat(More)
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) occurs in both asymmetric forms, covalently associated with a collagenous subunit called Q (ColQ), and globular forms that may be either soluble or membrane associated. At the skeletal neuromuscular junction, asymmetric AChE is anchored to the basal lamina of the synaptic cleft, where it hydrolyzes acetylcholine to terminate(More)
The molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) correspond to various quaternary structures and modes of anchoring of the enzyme. In vertebrates, these molecules are generated from a single gene: the catalytic domain may be associated with several types of C-terminal peptides, that define distinct types of catalytic subunits (AChE(S), AChE(H), AChE(T))(More)
The major type of acetylcholinesterase in vertebrates (AChET) is characterized by the presence of a short C-terminal domain of 40 residues, the 'tryptophan amphiphilic tetramerization' (WAT) domain. The presence of this domain is not necessary for catalytic activity but is responsible for hydrophobic interactions and for the capacity of AChET subunits to(More)
Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) play an important role in regulating the release of acetylcholine (ACh) in various tissues. We used subtype-specific antibodies and a fluorescent-labelled muscarinic toxin to demonstrate that mammalian neuromuscular junction expresses mAChR subtypes M1 to M4, and that localization of all subtypes is highly(More)
The asymmetric forms of cholinesterases are synthesized only in differentiated muscular and neural cells of vertebrates. These complex oligomers are characterized by the presence of a collagen-like tail, associated with one, two or three tetramers of catalytic subunits. The collagenic tail is responsible for ionic interactions, explaining the insertion of(More)
As a tetramer, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is anchored to the basal lamina of the neuromuscular junction and to the membrane of neuronal synapses. We have previously shown that collagen Q (ColQ) anchors AChE at the neuromuscular junction. We have now cloned the gene PRiMA (proline-rich membrane anchor) encoding the AChE anchor in mammalian brain. We show(More)
Congenital myasthenic syndrome (CMS) with end-plate acetylcholinesterase (AChE) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disease, recently classified as CMS type Ic (CMS-Ic). It is characterized by onset in childhood, generalized weakness increased by exertion, refractoriness to anticholinesterase drugs, and morphological abnormalities of the neuromuscular(More)